June 25 / 2014  CURRENTLY UPDATING FOR THE FALL 2014 / SPRING 2015 SEASON....now taking fruit tree order reservations for   fall 2014  / spring 2015 ... 

1 - 9 one year old whips  $30.00 each  10 - 49  whips $25.00  over 50 whips -$20.00       

GUARANTEE              Siloam Orchards fruit trees are guaranteed to be in good health and be true to name upon delivery.  Trees are not guaranteed further, as we have absolutely no control over how the trees are handled.  Should you have any complaints regarding your trees, contact us and we will do our best to satisfy you and issue a replacement if warranted.  Trees are NOT guaranteed to over winter.  Please consult the Hardiness Zone ratings before selecting trees.  Siloam Orchards will not be held responsible for damages greater than the retail value of the purchase.                                  

HISTORICAL APPLES      HISTORICAL APPLE NOTES

    DISEASE RESISTANT     CRAB APPLES      RED FLESHED APPLES

CIDER APPLES          see Claude Jolicoeur site re Quebec cider apples cjoliprsf.awardspace.biz 

LINKS TO OTHER SITES OF INTEREST

Acorn - East Coast Organic Growers

Apple Luscious Organic Orchard  Salt Spring Island Apple Festival 

Apple Journal  -  Apple photos , information, and related topics 

BRITISH COLUMBIA  growers please contact Derry Walsh as we do not ship to BC...derrywalsh1@gmail.com

Cummins Nursery  - trees for USA  (we ship within Canada only, no BC shipments)

www.bighorsecreekfarm.com - a nursery in North Carolina with an extensive list of heirloom apples for USA customers

www.nafex.org  The North American Fruit Explorers is an international group of fruit enthusiasts specializing in rare and heirloom varieties

www.midfex.org  Midwest fruit explorers 

www.brogdale.org  - large UK fruit repository,info and photos

www.keepers-nursery.co.uk    another informative UK site and photos 

www.orangepippin.com  UK apple site with photos and descriptions of rare varieties

Andrew Lea's Cider Page (UK)

Canadian Content Cider Links

Talisman Farm   Colorado USA Cider info and links

 ONE YEAR WHIPS ONLY

Select  at least two distinct varieties for the purpose of cross pollination.  A few varieties are triploids that do not produce viable pollen.  These should be planted with two non triploid varieties. Triploids are noted as such in the descriptions. The hardiest apples are grown on the Antonovka  rootstock, the remainder on M26.  Mature trees will average 10-12'  in height and should be spaced a minimum of 10' apart on M26 or Ottawa 3; Antonovka is a seedling rootstock that will require greater spacing  Many varieties will yield 2 bushels (80-100lbs) of fruit  at maturity (6-8yrs) on dwarf roots  Fruiting begins often in year 2. .Varieties with a long ripening period are suited to those who wish to pick a few apples daily over a period of a week or two.  Early varieties (August) do not store long.  Be prepared to use them promptly.

TRIPLOID APPLES          These varieties have pollen which is different from ‘regular’ apples. A triploid (ie Greening) will not pollinate a ‘regular’ type (ie McIntosh). If you were to plant only 1 each of these 2 varieties, the Mac would pollinate the Bramleys which would fruit, however the Bramleys would not pollinate the Mac, which would be devoid of fruit. Therefore if you plant a triploid variety,  you need to plant it with at least 2 other ‘regular’ ( non-triploid) varieties. The following apples are triploid types.

             Belle de Boskoop , Blenheim Orange , Bulmers Norman (Cider) , Fallawater , Holstein, Tompkins King, Rhode Island Greening, Shizuka  , Zabergau Reinette

ROOTSTOCKS          ANTONOVKA are vigorous winter hardy seedling rootstocks that will produce standard trees perhaps 20 feet tall.....suggest spacing of 16 -20 feet apart minimum                                   

EMLA 26         is a semi dwarfing rootstock , winter hardy in Canada zone 4 , produces trees perhaps 12-14 feet tall.....suggest spacing of  10-12 feet apart minimum      

 EMLA 9         is a dwarfing rootstock for Canada zone 5 or milder areas of zone 4 with winter protection...produces trees about 8 feet tall...suggested spacing 6 feet apart minimum

BUDOFSKY  ( BUD )  9     a more winter hardy version of EMLA 9

MM106

ANTIQUE APPLE NAMES

  CODLING -    An immature or green apple, the time when the codling moth attacks the fruit. Used in reference to apples used when green, as in Keswick Codlin.

  CRAB – From the Norse word for crab apple – scrab , defined 1420

GILLIFLOWER- Given to apples that smell or taste like Gillyflower (pronounced ‘Jilly”), a garden plant of the genus Dianthus that has an aroma of cloves

NONPAREIL – From the French meaning “without an equal”.

NONESUCH – Also means without an equal, as in “ none other such like it”

PEARMAIN – From the French Parmanus, meaning “from Parma ( Northern Italy )”, defined 1597

PIPPINA seedling apple, from the old French pepin, meaning seed,defined 1432.

REINETTE- From the French Reine, Queen, given to a large group of French dessert apples, often highly flavored, and more often than not smallish, somewhat flat in shape, hard and good keepers.

RUSSET- The word means red, but here it refers to the texture of the apple, since it comes from “russet coat”, the dull red-brown rough wool coats of peasants. Rusty coat has the same origin.      

APPLES 

HERITAGE , HEIRLOOM , ANTIQUE APPLE VARIETIES  marked as H   Alexander -  Allington Pippin  - Ananas Reinette  - Baldwin    - Baxter  -  Belle de Boskoop   -   Ben Davis-  Black Gilliflower   -    Blenheim Orange    - Blue Pearmain    - Bottle Greening    -    Bramleys Seedling - Calville Blanc  -Cox Orange Pippin -   Crimson Beauty-        Duchess (Oldenburg)    -    Early Harvest   -  Egremont Russet - Golden Nugget -   Golden Reinette    - Golden Russet -   GravensteinGrimes Golden - Hibernal - Hubbardston - Hudson's Golden Gem - Irish Peach - Jackson's Apple ( Chenango Strawberry)-  Jefferis - Kentish Fillbasket (Fillbarrel) - King of Tompkins County - Lady -  Lubsk Queen- Lyman's Large Summer- McIntosh 1st Generation - McMahon White - Maiden Blush - Margil- Melba - Milwaukee - Mother - Newtown Pippin ( Albemarle) - Non Pareil - Northern Spy   - Northwest Greening - Ontario - Peewaukee - Pomme Gris - Primate - Princess LouisePumpkin Sweet Red Astrachan - Rhode Island Greening - Ribston Pippen - Rome Beauty Roxbury Russet - St. Edmund's Pippin- St. Lawrence Scarlet Pippen - Seek no Further - ShiawasseeSmokehouse - Snow  (Fameuse) - Swayzie Russet- Sweet Bough - Tolman Sweet - Wagener - Wealthy - Wolf River - Yellow Bellflower  (Bishops Pippin)   - Yellow Transparent - York     

CIDER APPLES  marked as  CID The apple cider that we know today in North America is often no more than apple juice, often a single variety such as McIntosh, bland and unremarkable. The sweet cider that we produce at Siloam Orchards is a blend of many varieties, usually at least 20, and includes varieties specifically for cider, that vastly improve the product. Below are listed varieties that contribute to an excellent cider. True cider or hard cider is a fermented, alcoholic beverage long produced in Europe, England, and colonial America, that was drank at all meals by young and old alike. The traditional English cider uses varieties that are grown only for cider, are often unpalatable eaten fresh but produce a beverage of uncommon distinction.

Sharp-low tannin, high acidity     Bittersharp- high tannin, high acidity  Bittersweet- high tannin, low acidity   Sweet- low tannin, low acidity

CRAB APPLES  marked as C

DISEASE RESISTANT APPLES   marked as DR ....   This group consists of apple varieties that have been bred for disease resistance, primarily apple scab, by cross pollinating varieties that have natural disease resistance with varieties that have desirable characteristics. Excellent for organic growers or home gardeners without the desire to spray fungicides ( organic or conventional). These are still susceptible to insect damage.   VARIETIES  .....Other apple varieties that may offer some degree of disease resistance: Adam's Pearmain, Baxter, Belle de Boskoop, Blue Pearmain, Chehalis, Coe's Golden Drop, Court Pendu Plat, Greensleeves, Holstein Cox, Hudsons Golden Gem,  Jefferis, Keepsake, Northwest Greening, Roxbury Russet, Salome,   Sweet Bough, Wagener, Wealthy, Wolf River, Yellow Transparent; and many cider apples including Browns Apple and Stokes Red. Also Geneva redfleshed crabapple

RED FLESHED APPLES  marked as   This group have the unique distinction of  a red flesh hiding under an apple skin of regular appearance. We are adding more redfleshed apples to our collection in the near future.   Varieties ... Almata - 

 

CODE N/A - NOT AVAILABLE AGAIN UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE

VARIETIES

VARIETIES WITH THE  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015    TAG MAY BE ORDERED PRIOR TO AUGUST 1 / 2014  FOR DELIVERY AS ONE YEAR OLD STOCK LATE FALL 2015

AKANE       N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015  We hope to propagate this one in Aug 2013.  A  Japanese apple combining the extraordinary flavours of Jonathan and Worcester Pearmain, released from the Morioka Experimental Station in 1937...a red apple with a tangy/sweet taste that ripens early and does not keep...refridgerate and use promptly...has some disease resistance

ALEXANDER ( Emperor Alexander)     H   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015     A Russian apple introduced to England likely in 1817 (reports vary on the year) and from England to the USA in the early 1800’s, along with many other Russian apples notably Yellow Transparent, Duchess and Red Astrachan, in an effort to find varieties with cold hardiness suitable for commercial production. The fruit is usually large with a tough thick skin, greenish with red and carmine stripes and splashing. Flesh is coarse, firm, crisp and tart/sweet. Does not store long, but ripens over a long picking window of several weeks. The tree is vigorous and early to bear. Quite winter hardy to at least Canada zone 4. A likely parent of Wolf River. Harvest in early October as a dessert also quite good as a culinary variety.     More on Alexander courtesy Apple Journal

ALKMENE        N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015    parentage is Cox Orange Pippin x Duchess , from Ahrensburg, Germany, from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute 1930, similar yet more winter hardy than the tender Cox. An early season strong tangy robust taste.

ALMATA     N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015     Harry Burton writes " bred by Dr. Neils Hansen of South Dakota , 1942....small to medium sized apple with solid pale red skin covering a flesh of striking watermelon red colour...tart flavour...makes a delicious cranberry red applesauce." One of the most winter hardy redfleshed varieties. Ripens fairly early in September. Perhaps a result of a cross of Beautiful Arcade (extremely winter hardy) and Redflesh.

ANANAS   REINETTE  ( PINEAPPLE  REINETTE)   H  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015      From the Netherlands 1821. A smallish golden yellow apple with russetting and a pineapple flavor becoming more pronounced as it ripens. Intense flavor, sweet/sharp, all purpose, aromatic. Late to ripen, October. Tree is of low vigor, dwarfing, suitable for small gardens. Photo and more

ASHMEADS KERNEL  H RUSSET VARIETY  sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015   An heirloom from UK or Europe 1700's. Smallish green russetted variety always ranks highly in taste tests of unusual and rare apples , also excellent for cider. Ashmeads is a good example of apples that have a drab unattractive appearance and thus would not be acceptable in todays commercial marketplace , yet have a remarkable taste all their own. Orange Pippin website has good description and testimonials

BALDWIN (Woodpecker or Pecker)  H     sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015   A monument was erected in Wilmington, near Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1895, to the Baldwin apple, with the following inscription: “This Pillar Erected in 1895 By The RUMFORD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION Incorporated April 28, 1877  Marks the estate where in 1793 Samuel Thompson, Esq., while locating the line of the Middlesex Canal, discovered the first Pecker apple tree. Later named the BALDWIN”. ( From Bailey’s Cyclopedia, 1927, other sources claim it was discovered by John Ball in 1740, another claims it came from John Ball in 1784, in Wilmington, ). “Fruits of Ontario, 1906” states about the Baldwin apple “The Baldwin apple originated in the state of Massachusetts and has been for many years the most popular winter apple for either home or foreign markets”. Towards the end of WW1 several extreme winters killed off most of the Baldwin trees and orchards were replanted with the newly popular McIntosh, spelling the end of Baldwin as a popular variety. The fruit is often large with a yellow background shaded and splashed with crimson and red and spotted with russet dots. Flesh is yellowish white, tender, juicy, subacid yet spright and aromatic. Fine as a dessert apple and a good cooker, also good for freezing and drying. The tree is vigorous, upright and spreading and productive. Harvest late, stores well. Triploid variety. Zone 5.            BALDWIN PHOTO            

 BANANE AMERE        CID    sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015         one of Claude Jolicoeurs discoveries , detailed description at very bottom of this page

 BANCROFT   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015       From the Ag Canada breeding program at Ottawa, 1935, a cross of Forest x McIntosh. Resembles McIntosh in habit, strong grower,  hardier than  Mac , precocious. Harvested later than Mac    (   October ) and stores longer, at times through the winter in proper cold storage conditions. We have not tested this one here as yet, but has a possibility as a later storage Mac    

BAXTER H NOT CURRENTLY IN OUR COLLECTION  An historical Ontario apple from Brockville first grown by Mr. Larue, but introduced by Mr. Baxter, as reported in “FRUITS OF ONTARIO,1906”. The fruit is large, roundish/slightly conical, red with obscure dark red striping and prominent grey dots. The flesh is white, often streaked with red, fairly firm, a little dry and tart. Okay as a dessert apple, good for cooking. Tree is quite winter hardy and vigorous. Zone 4, harvest October.

BELLE de BOSKOOP       H    sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015           From Holland circa 1850, possibly from the variety Reinette de Montford arising as a bud sport. From the Ottolander family nursery at Boskoop, Holland.An outstanding dessert, culinary and storage apple that will improve and sweeten while in cold storage. Often large, greenish yellow flushed with red and light russeting. The flesh is acidic, lively, spright, crisp and aromatic. Slow to begin to bear but a decent cropper when mature. Triploid variety will not pollinate others. Harvest late, in October, stores well. Resistant to apple scab.  Boskoop photo courtesy Apple Journal 

BEN  DAVIS        H   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015     One of the most commercially important apples in the south in the 1800’s prized for its ability to keep in storage. Often rock hard when picked, its eating quality improves after several months. You love it or hate it. Bright yellow skin with dark red mottling and blushing. Baileys Cyclopedia 1927 identifies the mid west as the “Ben Davis belt.-Generally speaking, Ben Davis is the leading variety in central and southern Illinois, the south half of Iowa, and the apple growing districts of Arkansas ,Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, and the south half of Nebraska. With its close kin, the Gano and the Black Ben Davis, which evidently are highly colored sports of Ben Davis, it probably produces at least one-half of the commercial apple crop in this region.                More on Ben Davis courtesy Apple Journal

BILODEAU     CID   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015  one of Claude Jolicoeurs discoveries , detailed description at very bottom of this page

BLACK OXFORD   H sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015        A dessert, cooking, drying and cider apple from Maine in the 1860’s. The fruit is colored deep purple with black bloom. Resistant to disease. Late ripening, in October.   more and photo

BLENHEIM ORANGE  H     sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015        A very famous old apple in Britain originating in Woodstock, near Blenheim in Oxfordshire, England, 1740, near the residence of the Duke of Marlboro, and was well known through Europe and America by 1820-1840. “Fruits of Ontario 1906” states, “An apple that is constantly gaining in favor with both grower and consumer, because of its size, its beauty, its evenness of form and general excellence for cooking and dessert purposes.” An all purpose large variety yellowish with red and light russet covering. Crisp, sweet with light tartness, lightly spicy or nutty aftertaste. Triploid variety will not pollinate others. Vigorous, harvest October.  Photo and more 

BLUE PEARMAIN   H  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 26 ROOTSTOCK       An antique apple of unknown origin, likely from the New England states early 1800’s. Popular in Britain in the mid 1800’s, likely as a result of fruit and trees being shipped there from America, although the possibility exists that it has its origins in Britain. The fruit is usually large, slightly conical, a dull yellow splashed and striped with dark purple, may be solid dark reddish/purple in full sun, has a conspicuous blue bloom ( a powdery substance on the fruit), flesh is yellowish, firm, mildly acid, rich and aromatic, skin is somewhat tough. Tree is vigorous but a shy bearer. All purpose, good in cider. Like Golden Russet it may shrivel in storage yet retain good flavor; do not pick until it is ripe and provide storage humidity to help prevent shriveling. Pick October, hardy in Canada zone 5/4.       More on Blue Pearmain     

BLUSHING GOLDEN      DR  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK         A Golden Delicious type with orangey blush. Disease resistant, stores well, flavor often improves in cold storage,  harvest Oct. Discovered as a chance seedling in 1952 by Ralph Griffiths near Cobden Illinois                           

BOTTLE GREENING   H  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015        A chance seedling discovered growing near the border of New York and Vermont in the early 1800’s.  Work gangs in the area were accustom to stashing their bottles in the hollow trunk of the original tree, which became known as the Bottle Tree, and later the Bottle Greening. A good dessert apple and excellent for cooking and cider, it was never widely grown commercially as it bruises fairly easily thus was not desirable for shipping. The fruit is medium large in size, slightly conical, yellowish green with red on the sunny side, skin is tough. Flesh is greenish white, tender, juicy, melting, subacid. Tree is vigorous, productive, and fairly winter hardy to zone 4. Pick October, stores fairly well. A good example of an antique apple that did have merits worthy of commercial production, but remains highly desirable in the home garden. Fairly winter hardy,zone 4  

BRAMLEY’S SEEDLING  H      sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015              Another of the most famous of British apples, prized as one of the best pie apples ever, just ask an Englishman! This one is said to have originated with Mary Anne Brailsford in Nottinghamshire , England and introduced in 1865 by a later owner of the property, Mr. Bramley. The fruit is large, greenish yellow with reddish brown striping. The flesh is firm, juicy and sharply acid, high vitamin C content. The tree is vigorous and spreading, resistant to apple scab, and is a triploid type that will not pollinate others. Tender in our area and needs a sheltered microclimate, zone 5. Also makes a terrific addition to a blended cider. Harvest October.      

BREAKWELL’S SEEDLING     CID   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015        Bittersharp  Tree of medium vigor, heavy cropper, precocious. From England 1890’s.

 BRITEGOLD         DR   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015               A mid season yellow disease resistant variety reminiscent of Golden Delicious. Attractive coloration, bright yellow / gold often blushed pink on the sunny side, tangy sweet. From Ag. Canada 1980, Smithfield Station, Trenton, Ontario. Great for organic gardens. Late September / early October harvest. Parents include 25% Red Delicious, 25% Red Melba, Northern Spy, Jonathan and Rome Beauty. Tree is of moderate to low vigor ( dwarfing), and blooms with McIntosh.   Zone 5    

BROWN’S APPLE       CID  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 26 ROOTSTOCK          Sharp, mid season, tangy, fruity aroma. From South Devon, England, early 1900’s. Pick October at our location. Medium dark red fruit, flesh may be stained with red. Vintage cider apple. Ag Canada publication 1988-6E states " fair juice yield. Medium soluble solids. High titratable acids. Sugar to acid ratio 13. Medium tannin.  

  BULMERS NORMAN     CID    AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 26 ROOTSTOCK          Originally from Normandy, France, developed by H.P. Bulmer & Co., Hereford England.  Bittersweet, fast fermenting, fruit is large, yellow/green, triploid type, ripens mid season. Vintage type. 

BURFORDS REDFLESHED   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   Tom Burford of Virginia discovered this redflesh ; very late to ripen , astringent when picked too early , keeps well and mellows in storage

CALVILLE  BLANC  D’HIVER (WHITE  WINTER  CALVILLE)     H     sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015          The classic French dessert apple dating back to the 1500’s, growing at Orleans in the gardens of Louis XIII in 1627. Large, somewhat flattish shape with ribbing, pale green often with red dotting on the sunny side. Afterripens to yellow in storage where it develops maximum flavor. Very high vitamin C, as much as an orange, effervescent taste. Harvest late, in October, stores well, excellent as a dessert apple, for cider, cider vinegar, and culinary use. Zone 5    

CANADA  RED   H     N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015         The fruit is medium to large in size, mostly uniform.  An apple of disputed heritage, likely first grown in New England and brought from Toronto, Ontario into western New York state where it was raised commercially as Canada Red. Described as being of good quality for a mid winter apple in ‘FRUITS OF ONTARIO, 1906’.  Skin is yellow background covered with deep red blush and darker red striping. Flesh is whitish with green or yellow tinting, firm, crisp, juicy an fine grained. Late fall harvest.  

Carlos Queen   AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON ANTONOVKA  ROOTSTOCK          WINTER HARDY FOR CANADA ZONE 3    A pale green apple sometimes blushed with gold, creamy white flesh, crisp, excellent flavour, also good for cooking. Does not brown quickly when cut. From Rocky Mountain House by Robert Erskine, released commercially in 1972. Parents are Antonovka x Manitoba . Harvest early September.Very winter hardy for cold climates  

CARMELITER REINETTE      sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015       H Heirloom apple from France possibly mid 1600's , sweet , aromatic...yellow flushed with red and rusetted. We hope to graft our first of these in Aug 2013.

CARROLL   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015        WINTER HARDY FOR CANADA ZONE 3    A summer apple ripening at Siloam Orchards just after Vista Bella in mid August. One of our favorite early varieties, we find it crisp with a unique complex fruity spright and lively flavor. As with nearly all summer apples, Carroll must be used promptly as it will not keep. Quality is better in years without excessive heat.   Carroll is a seedling of Morden 5029-EL52, ( a seedling of Moscow Pear) x Melba, also has Malinda in parentage released from Morden Research  Very winter hardy for cold climates

CELESTIA     H sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015    One of the best tasting apples one can find, very rare. The skin is pale green that becomes yellowish at maturity and may be blushed pink. Extremely juicy, luscious, crisp and tender, very pleasant, rich. This one was described in 1887 as having a spicy flavor and very aromatic by Warder, also noted in other texts up to about 1900, after which it disappeared, apparently extinct. Its reappearance is credited to Conrad Gemmer of Susquehanna, Pa. , in the 1980’s, in an old New Jersey orchard.          

CENTENNIAL   C  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015        A fabulous apple that is practically unknown, too small for commercial use. Mr. Nitsche  claims that  it “ originated at the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station in Excelsior, Minn. It is a cross of Wealthy and Dolgo Crab, introduced in 1957, apparently after Dr. Carstens had planted it at Mt. Vernon , and was named Centennial in honor of the State of Minnesota ’s admission to the union in 1858”.  Elongated barrel shape, sweet and delicious, striped bright and dark red, yellow flesh that is tender, crisp, juicy and luscious. Naturally dwarf, good for small gardens.   

CHENANGO STRAWBERRY   H   N/A 2014       An elongated porcelain skinned small to medium sized apple. Harvest must take place just as the fruit begins to ripen, as it turns milky white, may have a pink blush becoming more pronounced as it ripens. When picked at the right time flavor is unique and fruity, early September at Siloam Orchards. From New York , known since at least 1850. Zone 5.   Chenango Strawberry photo courtesy Apple Journal      

  CHESTNUT     C  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON ANTONOVKA ROOTSTOCK       Seedling of Malinda from U of Minn selected 1921 introduced 1946. A large crab 2” yellow maybe russetted base with light red / bronze striping. Yellow flesh spright nutty flavor good fresh eating or great preserves such as brandied or spiced crabs. Mid September ripening,later than many crabs, also mid season bloom useful as a pollenizer for most apples.   

CHISEL JERSEY        CID   AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK     From the Martock-Kingsbury area of Somerset, England, dating back 150 years. Yields a full-bodied, astringent juice, high tannin , bittersweet, for a blended cider. Late ripening. Fruit is green with a red blush. Tree is vigorous and productive.   Photo and more    

CINNAMON SPICE   no longer offered as it winter killed 2014 when we experienced -30C

COLE’S QUINCE H  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK       From Cornish, Maine , as early as 1806.  Also known as Pear Apple or Quince Apple due to its high quince or pear flavor and aroma. Raised by Captain Henry Cole, and described by his son S.W. Cole in his text “American Fruit Book”, in 1849. A summer apple ripening in August, used for culinary purposes when ripening and dessert when fully tree ripened. Yellow skin that may have a sunny side red flush, yellowish white flesh that is mildly acidic, crisp, tender, juicy. Small to medium size, somewhat flat and ribbed.  more and photo

COWICHAN    C    N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015    Large fruited crab, makes a dark red jelly, early bloom,deep pink flowers and bronze foliage

COX ORANGE PIPPIN   H AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK   The most famous of the old English apples, known throughout the world for its excellent eating qualities, unfortunately tender and cannot survive in the colder growing districts. It originated with Richard Cox , ( 1777-1845) at Colnbrook Lawn, England around the 1820’s, from the probable parents Ribston Pippin and Blenheim Orange. The taste has been described as spicy, honeyed, nutty, rich full flavored, sweet/tart, one of the best of dessert apples. The skin is yellowish covered with a reddish orange flush ripening to a mostly orange color, sporadically russetted, medium size. Cox Orange has been used widely as a parent in breeding programs to produce many excellent new varieties, such as Gala of which it is a grandparent. Tender, zone 5 in protected microclimates only, harvest October.                For a more complete story on Cox Orange Pippin, visit http://www.england-in-particular.info/cox.html                                       

COX ORANGE APPLE - See also  , Kent, HOLSTEIN,KARMIJN,Alkmene, Tumanga, Ellisons Orange,Merton Beauty

  CRANBERRY  PIPPIN   H  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015     A cooking apple of extreme beauty with white juicy subacid flesh. Medium to large size, oblate, yellow background shaded and striped with two shades of red. The tree is very vigorous, spreading and productive, Zone 5, harvest October. Discovered as a chance seedling on a farm near Hudson, New York.

CRIMSON  BEAUTY (EARLY RED BIRD)  H   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   A    very winter hardy Canadian historical variety first grown by Francis Sharp of Upper Woodstock , New Brunswick in the mid 1800’s. One of the first apples to ripen in late July or early August, it may have a raspberry flavor. A seedling of Snow. Suitable for Zone 3 , grown on the hardy Antonovka or Ranetka rootstock. . Has been grown successfully in Alaska. In the early 1900’s, Stark Brothers Nursery sold this apple under the trademarked name of Early Red Bird, advertising it as the earliest of all apples. When fully ripe it has veins of red running through the flesh, and produces a terrific red applesauce. In 2011 we harvested this one July 25 , the first variety to ripen. Pick it on time or it softens quickly on the tree , however still great for baking.

CRIMSON CRISP ( CO OP 39 )          DR     sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015             Outstanding new release from PRI. Flesh is cream coloured, mildly acid, coarse grained, crisp, breaking, hard. Sugary, spicy, full rich flavour, juicy to very juicy. Stores 6 months although flavour is best at harvest in Sept. Detailed description  

DABINETT     CID  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015  Medium bittersweet. Medium size, green with dull red flush, productive. From Somerset England , possibly a seedling of Chisel Jersey . ‘Soft’ tannin.  

DAYTON     DR  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015      Dark red mid September apple , a disease resistant selection from the PRI program 1988 for the organic grower. Parents include Melba, Rome, Jonathan, Wealthy. Crisp, juicy, often large, moderately acid, good flavor, pale yellow flesh. Zone 4.      More on Dayton and photo courtesy Purdue University    

DECIO  H   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   Perhaps the most ancient apple in existence today , dating back to Roman times. We hope to propagate this one in 2013 to offer to those who wish to grow an apple that may have been enjoyed by Caesar! "Et tu , Brute"

DISCOVERY     N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   An English apple that is one of the best of the summer varieties

DOLGO CRAB       C       A small dark red crab that makes a gorgeous clear red jelly. Pick early September. The tree is very winter hardy to zone 3, and has some disease resistance. One of the earliest apples to bloom in the spring, a terrific show of white flowers, it also has attractive red fall colour. A good pollinator for early blooming apples. From Russia, early 1900’s. Ottawa 3 rootstock.

DOUCE de CHARLEVOIX    CID   sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015    one of Claude Jolicoeurs discoveries , detailed description at very bottom of this page

DUCHESS (of Oldenburg)    H  sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015     One of the pioneer Russian apples to America via England. It was known in Russia in the 1600’s or early 1700’s, reportedly introduced to England by the Royal Horicultural Society in 1824, and into America by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1835. Valued for its extreme winter hardiness (Canada zone 4 possibly 3). A cooking apple that makes some of the best early season pies as it ripens in August here. The fruit is medium to sometimes large, greenish yellow with red splashing and striping, flesh is greenish to yellowish white at maturity, firm, brisk, acidic. Must be harvested before it becomes overripe or it will be mealy. May have some disease resistance.       Duchess photo courtesy Apple Journal   

 DUDLEY WINTER ( NORTHSTAR )  H  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015        A winter hardy heirloom apple from Maine streaked and splashed with deep lively red, yellow subacid flesh with a pleasant flavor. Ripens with Wealthy, early September. Tree is vigorous and productive.   more and photo           

EARLY  HARVEST  H   sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015       T his very early yellow apple is similar in appearance to  and often confused with Yellow Transparent, with both varieties ripening in late July to early August. Early Harvest however , has a crisper flesh than Yellow Transparent and better quality for fresh eating, also excellent for sauce, and ripens about 1 week earlier , pick with Crimson Beauty as the two earliest varieties . Described by McMahon in 1805 as Prince’s Harvest and by Coxe in 1817 as Early French Reinette. Originated in Long Island, New York in the 1700’s.   

EGREMONT RUSSET  H  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015            An old English russet known in 1872. Sweet, rich, somewhat nutty taste, firm, somewhat dry; flavor changes and becomes more complex in storage. One of the best of the russets, darker than most and often with black markings. Stores well, and is likely the most winter hardy of the russets, zone 4, resistant to apple scab, tree is upright and moderately vigorous and a good cropper. Harvest October     

ELLISON’S ORANGE    H  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK        An English apple from Lincolnshire known in 1911, a cross of Cox Orange Pippin x Calville Blanc. A medium sized dessert variety, golden yellow with crimson striping. The flesh is tender and juicy, spright, lively, spicy with a somewhat anise flavoring.  

ENTERPRISE  DR N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015    A late maturing disease resistant storage apple from PRI,  late October at Siloam. Dark red fruit is moderately acid at harvest, spicy, juicy with a full rich flavour. Stores for 6 months, after 2 months quality is equal to or better than at harvest. Full description

FALLAWATER   H N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015  A large to enormous apple from Pennsylvania mid 1800's also known as Molly Whopper. Dull green skin shaded with reddish bronze. Triploid type, plant with at least two other varieties. Primarily a cooking apple, at one time very popular in the south. Late harvest, stores fairly well for such a large variety.  

FIRESIDE   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   WINTER HARDY FOR CANADA ZONE 3     A winter hardy variety for cold regions, somewhat reminiscent of Red Delicious. Most agree that Fireside has superior flavor and texture than modern Delicious. Fruit is conical, greenish with scarlet striping /orange mottling, large, crisp, juicy, greenish white to yellowish flesh, sweetly subacid, good winter keeper in cold storage.    Tree is vigorous, hardy in zone 3. The parentage of Fireside is Longfield x McIntosh, 1943, from the Excelsior Fruit Breeding Farm, University of Minnesota

FORTUNE

FOXWHELP     CID  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015  Medium bittersharp, full body, good for blending.

FREEDOM        DR   sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015     From New York Ag., 1983. Parents include 25% Macoun, 25% Antonovka, 25% Golden Delicious, also Rome. Large, red striped over yellowish background; creamy, juicy, firm, tender and moderately acid, unique pleasant flavor. Harvest October. Zone 4. one of the better disease resistant varieties for storage, may retain quality until December in cold storage. 

FROSTBITE (MINNESOTA 447)      WINTER HARDY FOR CANADA ZONE 3  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON ANTONOVKA ROOTSTOCK     A Minnesota selection first fruited in the 1940's  that was  not released until 2008 as "Frostbite" ;  an open pollinated seedling of Malinda. Smallish, quite late apples excellent for storage. Green somewhat tough skin overlaid / striped with dark bronze red, golden yellow flesh, very firm and crisp, very sweet with a fruity sometimes banana taste. One of the best varieties for long term storage, where the flavor improves and develops its complex nature. Very winter hardy for cold climates, Canada zone 3. Requires sufficient irrigation during summer months. Some resistance to fireblight.  Photo and more      

GALARINA         DR  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK    A Gala type that is disease resistant and also hardier than Gala. The cross is Gala x Florina Querinaa, made at Angers France and tested at Ag Canada Richelieu Quebec . Fruit ripens with Cortland , later than Gala, also has better storage capabilities than Gala. Galarina has good quality after 4 months of cold storage. Detailed description      

GAVIN    DR  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   A naturally disease resistant variety from UK 1956 , we expect to graft this one for the first time in Aug 2013. A smallish red / green apple , mid season ; named for Gavin Brown from the UK John Innes Institute , a result to breed apples resistant to apple scab, parents include the wonderfully flavoured Cox Orange Pippin and Worcester Pearmain

GLOWING HEART    R   sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015     One of Fred Janson's selections, described as looking like a beet inside and out due to its very deep purple / red colouring. Ripens September, quite tart.

GOLDEN HORNET     C  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   A crab blooming later than most, 1/2 inch yellow fruit, resistant to apple scab

GOLDEN  NUGGET   RUSSET VARIETY NOT CURRENTLY IN OUR COLLECTION   From Nova Scotia, 1932, a cross of Cox Orange x Golden Russet, that combines the rich flavor of its parents. Small in size, yellowish russet streaked and splashed with orange. Sweet, sugary with a hint of tang, all purpose, great for fresh eating, pies, sauce, cider and apple butter, does not keep long. May exhibit some resistance to apple scab. Zone 5, harvest early October. 

GOLDEN  PEARMAIN   H   Believed to be one of the original apples grown in Thomas Jeffersons orchard at Monticello , of unknown origin. May have originated in North Carolina and was described in 1755 and noted by Jefferson in 1807. The fruit is medium sized with a gorgeous golden-orange skin that is striped and marbled with a reddish bronze. The flesh is yellow, juicy, firm, crisp and fine grained. Ripens mid to late season, stores fairly well. Eaten as a fine dessert apple, also makes an exceptional cider or used in cider blends

GOLDEN  REINETTE   H   sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015      An old European variety, known in the 1700’s, possibly earlier. An small attractive apple, greenish golden yellow often with a blush of orangey red and russet spots, with a spright sweet/tart, fruity  taste similar to Blenheim Orange. Excellent for dessert, also cider, may have some resistance to apple scab. Harvest October. 

GOLDEN  RUSSET   H     sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015         The most famous of the russets; when most speak of russets they mean this one and are often unaware of the others in the large russet family. This is of American origin, a seedling of English Russet, known in the 1800’s and likely earlier, possibly originating in Burlington County, New Jersey in the 1700’s. One of the latest to fully tree ripen in October, notable for its storage ability. It can keep all winter in cold storage. It may shrivel in storage yet retain good flavor. The mistake is often made in harvesting Golden Russet too early; it must be left to hang on the tree almost as late as possible, and provided with humidity in storage to prevent breakdown and shriveling. Excellent for eating and prized as a cider variety, known to produce a hard cider of up to 7% alcohol due to its high sugar content (hic!); also good for drying. The skin is the typical russet, a  greenish yellow background with a covering of bronze / copper/ orange coloring. The flesh is fine grained, crisp and sugary. Some resistance to apple scab.  RUSSET APPLES - See  Egremont Russet, Golden Nugget, Golden Russet, Hudson's Golden Gem, Knobby Russet, Pomme Gris,  Roxbury Russet, St. Edmunds Russet, Swayzie Russet, 

GOLDEN  SWEET  H   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   One of the sweetest apples with little or no acid to balance the sweetness. Described as eating a spoon of honey. Ripens early to early mid-season, smooth thin waxy yellow skin. Golden Sweet is an old historical variety from Connecticut, early 1830’s, once popular in the south. Great for an apple sauce without sugar.   

GOLDRUSH          DR    N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015      A terrific variety if you have the season to ripen it properly. In 2007 we did not harvest Goldrush until early November. Hangs very well, leave it on the tree through the early season frosts for much better quality. As of New Years Day 2009 apples were still hanging, this one is ideal for ice cider.A Golden type, hard, crisp, crunchy, tangy tart that mellows and sweetens in cold storage over the winter

 GRAVENSTEIN     H   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015         A historical apple with perhaps the most disputed origins of all the antique European varieties; everyone wants to claim it! From Germany to Russia to Denmark and elsewhere, all say the Gravensteiner came from their country. Introduced to America in the 1820’s by Russian settlers in California. Prized as one of the best pie and sauce early season apples, ripening in early September here. A tender variety, it needs a sheltered microclimate to survive winter in Canada zone 5, popular on the east coast of Canada. We are currently testing various strains of Gravenstein from Norway to hopefully find one that is more winter hardy for our area. A bright yellow skin is overlaid with a pink/orange flush and light red striping. Flesh is creamy yellow and tender, crisp when not overripe, juicy and aromatic, does not keep. Triploid type will not pollinate others.                         Gravenstein photo courtesy Apple Journal

GREENSWEET        N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015      Late ripening green apple that stores very well

GRIMES GOLDEN    H sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015      One of the finest American apples for fresh eating and for producing a potent hard cider, although it does not cook well. Discovered by Thomas Grimes between 1790 and 1804 in Brooke County , West Virginia , near the site of the John Chapman (Johnny Appleseed) nursery. Believed to be one of the parents of Golden Delicious, which superseded Grimes Golden commercially due to its larger size, cleaner appearance and therefore better consumer acceptance, relegating Grimes Golden to the historical bin. A granite monument stands at the site of the original tree. The fruit is small if not thinned as it tends to overcrop, has a tough yellow skin often patched with russet. The flesh is yellowish orange, highly flavored, spicy sweet, tender, crisp, juicy, aromatic. Ripens in October and stores well. Zone 5

HARRY MASTERS JERSEY       CID   AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK     Vintage full bittersweet, softly astringent, high quality cider, late to ripen. England 1800’s. Dark red.

HAWKEYE      H N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015 The original Red Delicious from the 1800's , before it was 'improved' for colour, uniform shape, ability to ship etc. Far superior to your supermarket Red Delicious when homegrown

HEWES CRAB   C   AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK  Thomas Jefferson was a promoter of this crab for cider ; see www.twinleaf.org/articles/hewes.html (not linked)

HIBERNAL  H WINTER HARDY FOR CANADA ZONE 3  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON ANTONOVKA ROOTSTOCK  An apple of Russian origin valued for its cooking qualities and winter hardiness. Tree is vigorous and spreading, productive. The fruit is large, yellowish striped and splashed with red and small white dots, yellowish flesh, tender, crisp, juicy, and astringent acid. Harvest September for great pies, winter hardy in Canada zone 3. Known since at least 1880 and described in “Fruits of Ontario,1906”.      

HOLSTEIN     H     N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015  A seedling of Cox Orange from Holstein , Germany , discovered in 1918. Similar to Cox but larger, color is like Cox, yellow with varying red flush and russetting. Flesh is creamy yellow, firm, juicy and aromatic. The tree is resistant to apple scab, vigorous and spreading. It is a triploid variety that will not pollinate others. Stores fairly well, harvest in September. Should be more winter hardy than Cox.   

HONEYGOLD  WINTER HARDY FOR CANADA ZONE 3  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   Golden Delicious does not grow particularly well here, often lacking in size and winter hardiness. We lost all of our Goldens  after the deep freeze of 1994. We grow Honeygold instead which is winter hardy, ripens before Golden and in fact most of our customers prefer Honeygold over Golden Delicious. A cross of Golden Delicious x Haralson ( a very winter hardy type), released in 1969. 

HOWGATE WONDER   H  NOT IN OUR COLLECTION   One of the largest apples ever grown, first raised by G. Wratton in 1915, England, resulting as a cross of Blenheim Orange x Newton Wonder, introduced in 1932 after receiving the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Merit in 1929. The skin is pale green ripening to pale yellow, somewhat flushed and striped with brownish red ripening to orange red. Sweet, juicy and pleasant when eaten fresh, dose not keep, and keeps its shape when cooked but is very light and fluffy. Crops are heavy, thin the fruit to produce a few enormous sized apples, easily 4 inches. Recently a specimen weighing 1.38 kilos ( 3 pounds, 1 ounce) was to be submitted to the Guiness Book of World Records as the largest apple ever grown. Harvest late, in October.  

 HUBBARDSTON NONESUCH     H   sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015       From Hubbardston, Masachusetts, in the early 1800’s. The fruit is medium to large with a smooth yellow skin, a reddish blush and dark red striping; yellow aromatic flesh that is tender, juicy, sweet, rich and subacid, hard and crisp, a little spright at first ripening to sweet. Excellent as a dessert variety, not so good for cooking.The tree is quite hardy and does well in zone 4, productive, precocious, and vigorous. Harvest October. 

HUDSON’S GOLDEN GEM   RUSSET VARIETY  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   A  disease resistant, large russet variety of excellent quality found in a fence row growing wild at Hudson Nursery, Tangent, Oregon, 1931. Crisp, sugary, light yellow flesh, somewhat nutty flavor almost pear-like at maturity; smooth russet skin, conical and elongated. Harvest late September.   

HYSLOP  CRAB   C  a very few  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK   A large brilliant red or purple crab of unknown origin dating at least to 1869. Harvest when first ripe when fruit is juicy before it becomes dry and mealy. Excellent for jelly, pickling and cider. Ripens late August/early September, winter hardy.  

 IRISH PEACH (Early Crofton)  H AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON ANTONOVKA ROOTSTOCK      An old Irish variety known in the early 1800’s, possibly from Eire in 1820, likely has Yellow Transparent in its parentage. Early to ripen in August, small, greenish/ yellow, tart/tangy lightly sweetened, brisk, good eaten off the tree at first also pies and sauce. Tip bearer, do not prune back side branches.  Reportedly quite winter hardy having survived -40. Zone 4   

 

JAMES GRIEVE  H   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015    From James Grieve, Edinburg, Scotland, introduced 1893, probably a seedling of Cox Orange Pippin. Flesh is creamy white, very juicy, crisp yet melting, fine textured; excellent sweet flavour with a nice acid balance ; thin skin, almost solid crimson over yellow background ; ripens Sept. Tree is hardy, moderately vigorous, precocious.

 JEFFERIS  H  sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015    From the farm of Issac Jefferis of Chester County, Pennsylvania in the 1840’s. Its long harvest window makes this a desirable variety for home orchardsists wishing to pick a few ripe ones daily. Small to medium size, dark orangey red. The flesh is yellowish white, tender, crisp and very juicy, pear-like. The tree is productive and may have disease resistance. Mid season harvest in September. The Jefferis apple was awarded the “Premium” by the Pennsylvania Horiculture Society as the best seedling exhibited. In 1888, noted U.S. pomologist Dr. H.E. Van Deman said “ If I should be asked to select the choicest early autumn apple known to me, I should say the Jefferis”.  

JONAFREE   DR   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   1979 from PRI, parents include 25% Jonathan, 25% Gallia Beauty, 25% Red Spy, also Golden Delicious and Rome . Medium sized, orangey red over pale yellow, crisp, juicy, fine grained, mildly acidic and lightly aromatic. Harvest October Zone 5.    More on Jonafree and photo courtesy Purdue University    

JULY TART    N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015      A summer apple of the “Granny Smith” type, ripening at Siloam in August. Firm white flesh that is briskly tart, resists browning when cut( great as a tart fruit in salads); fruit is smallish, conic shaped, colored light green ripening to a pale yellow. The history is unclear, but was known locally in the area of Cumberland , Kentucky , and grown at the Whittaker property as a family heirloom tree

KANDIL SINAP  H    N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015  One of the most uniquely shaped apples, an extremely  narrow elongated form, from the Crimea or Turkey area( Kandil is candle in Turkish, for the shape), known in the 1800's but very possibly much older. Creamy white/yellow skin is blushed pinkish red. Zone 

KARMIJN de SONNAVILLE   sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015      lacks winter hardiness , only recommended for sheltered zone 5 sites and warmer  Intense flavor, rich, aromatic, masses of sugar and acidity, crisp, juicy, honeyed. Has some similarity in flavor to its parent Cox, but much more robust. Why is it not grown? Because it is unattractive, therefore not commercially viable (?!).  If todays apples do not have the Red Delicious size, color, and smooth skinned appearance they do not sell .

KEEPSAKE  sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015        A very winter hardy apple for the north that has remarkable storage ability. Harvested in October at Siloam Orchards, it will keep until spring in cold storage, and improves in flavor while in storage. Fruit is hard, crisp, juicy light yellow flesh, fine grained, aromatic out of storage.     Parentage includes Northern Spy, Malinda, and Minnesota 447, from Minnesota, 1979. Tree is moderately vigorous and may have resistance to fireblight.     Notes from Siloam Orchards storage trials: February 20/2001 – Excellent for eating, not mealy, still crisp, good flavor.     Photo and more      

KERR  CRABAPPLE N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015    C   

  KERRY  IRISH  PIPPIN   new to our collection !    AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 26 ROOTSTOCK      Ireland , 1802. Small yellow fruit, may be striped red on sunny side. Crisp, hard, crunchy, unique fruity taste once described as boysenberry.

KING OF THE  PIPPINS (REINE de REINETTE  H  sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015        Known in England prior to 1800. A small late apple with a wonderful complex flavor, rich, nutty, vinous. The fruit is only about 2 inches around and conical, golden yellow with reddish orange blush and red striping; creamy white flesh that is juicy and fine grained. Excellent for cider, often used in old English cider blends.                     Reine de Reinette photo

 KING OF TOMPKINS COUNTY   H   sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015   Attributed to Thomas Thacker of Warren County, New Jersey prior to 1800 of unknown parentage, and brought to Tompkins County, New York by Jacob Wycoff in 1804, who called it King, and named King of Tompkins County about 1855. A large apple, yellow background overlaid with red striping and flushing, flattish, oblate shape; yellow flesh that is somewhat sweet, rich and pleasant,juicy. An all purpose variety that stores fairly well and makes a flavorful addition to juice or cider. Triploid type will not pollinate others. Harvest in October. The tree is vigorous, spreading and productive.  

KINGSTON BLACK    CID  sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015      Bittersharp, excellent distinctive flavor, often called the perfect cider apple a vintage variety that produces an excellent single variety cider. Late to ripen. Said to have originated in Somersetshire, England, about 1820. Fruit is small to medium sized with an orangey background overlaid with a dark mahogany coloration, with tawny red juice. Tree is naturally dwarfing.  Photo and more   

KNOBBED RUSSET  H RUSSET VARIETY  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015  Perhaps the ugliest apple ever grown, looking more like a gnarly potato than an apple! From Sussex , England , 1819. An uneven, irregular and bumpy surface that has a greenish yellow background overlaid with rough gray and black russeting and distinctive welts and knobs. Many clichés come to mind, such as “don’t judge a book by its cover”, as the flesh is sweet and creamy, fine grained, rich and sugary, highly flavored. Knobbed Russet was headed for extinction when collected and preserved after WW11 in the National Fruit Trial collection in England

LADY (Api)  H    N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015     A small apple rich in history from the 1600’s in France. Thought to have been discovered in the Forest of Apis, Brittany, France, and was recorded in 1628, possibly the Appian apple of the Roman Empire. It was grown in the gardens of Louis XIV, and eaten by the ladies of the aristocracy as it would fit in their small delicate hands. Small, flattish with a shiny skin of creamy yellow, deep glossy crimson on the sunny side, very attractive; tender flesh that is white, crisp, juicy, effervescent. All purpose, good in cider, ripens very late, in October or later, stores well, only for areas that have a season long enough to ripen it. Often used in Christmas wreaths and decorations.  

LANARK GREENING   H    AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK    as reported by the Lanark Highlands website , " described as a hard, sweet, long keeper, developed by Robert Anderson in his nursery in Fallbrook " [ Ontario, Dalhousie Township, in the Lanark Highlands Region.]

    LIBERTY       DR   AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK  A disease resistant apple from the New York State Agriculture Experiment Station, Geneva, New York, 1978. Parentage includes 50% Macoun, 25% Wealthy, also Rome Beauty. Dark red, crisp, juicy, somewhat yellowish flesh. One of the best of the disease resistant varieties for storage. Harvest early October. Zone 4  

LOBO  WINTER HARDY FOR CANADA ZONE 3 N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015      An open pollinated seedling of McIntosh, from Agriculture Canada , Ottawa , 1930. Excellent mid season variety, ripens mid September at Siloam Orchards, prior to McIntosh, all purpose, makes great pies. Winter hardy, performs well in zone 4 also grown in zone 3 with shelter. Popular in  Quebec , never widely grown elsewhere.   

LORD LAMBOURNE  H  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 26 ROOTSTOCK      A cross of James Grieve x Worcester Pearmain, from England 1907, by Laxton Bros., released in 1923, and widely grown thereafter in Britain. Colored greenish yellow with bright red flushing and darker red striping. The flavor is a combination of the acidity of the James Grieve and the strawberry-like taste of the Worcester , sweet, juicy, crisp, fine grained, pale creamy and aromatic. Mid to late season.                                     An award winning variety, being honored with the Bunyard Cup in 1921 and the Award Merit from the Horticultural Society of England 1923.   more on Lord Lambourne                                         

 LUBSK QUEEN  H    sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015      Displayed at the Columbia Exposition in 1893 and received the comments “ the most remarkable combination of brilliant pink and white and pruinose color of which the eye can conceive”. Glistening white porcelain skin splashed or blushed with the brightest pink and rosy red. Flesh is snow white, firm, juicy and brisk, tart to most tastes. Also good for baking. Unlike many early apples , it does not tend to become overripe and mealy on the tree. Keeps well for an early variety, harvested in late August. Lubsk Queen was one of some 350 Russian apples brought to the U.S. by Prof. J.L. Budd of the Iowa State Agricultural College and Charles Gibb of Quebec between 1879 an 1885 in an effort to locate quality fruit for the harsh northern climates.     

LYMANS LARGE SUMMER   H     sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015       Magnificent large green apple,sometimes yellow, one of the best of the early summer apples. Though an early type it has”the breaking,crisp juicy flesh and clean pure flavor, blending sweet and sub acid, of the finest winter apples.Described as Large Yellow Summer in William Kendricks “New American Orchardist” in 1844. This variety was once thought lost but reappeared in 1941. 

  McINTOSH 1st GENERATION  H    N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015      The most commercially important Canadian apple ever grown and one of the worlds most prominent varieties, particularly in North America. Over the years, as is the case with Delicious, the search has been on for redder or more commercially viable sports, as appearance is the main concern for todays growers and the consumer. As a result, the variety has been watered down, and does not have the exact appearance and flavor of the original. Taste the original “Hawkeye” and todays Delicious and you will find quite a difference. The 1st  Generation is a direct descendant of  the original tree found growing on the farm of John McIntosh, Dundela, Dundas County, Ontario. Its parents are almost surely Snow and possibly St. Lawrence. A monument commemorates the tree: “ THE ORIGINAL McINTOSH RED APPLE TREE stood about 20 rods north of this spot. It was one of a number of  seedlings taken from the border of the clearings and transplanted by John McIntosh in the year 1796. Erected by Popular Subscription 1912”. (LH Bailey,1927) Ripens mid September, does not store as well as many, the best quality is from tree ripened fruit used fairly soon after after harvest. Zone 4.   

ADDITIONAL  TO  THE  ORIGINAL  McINTOSH

            The history is that John McIntosh came to Canada with the United Empire Loyalists. After spending some time along the frontier, he settled on his homestead in the county of Dundas in 1790 at a place later called McIntosh’s Corners, although that place has now become extinct, and Dundela has taken its place. In the year 1796 while clearing some land, he came upon a clump of young apple trees, about twenty in number. As apples were at that time a luxury, the apple trees were left unharmed, and a few days after were replanted in a clearing nearer his house. Most of the trees thrived for a few years but finally died. In 1830, only one tree out of the twenty remained. As this apple was unnamed, Mr. McIntosh combined his own name with the color of the apple and christened it “ McIntosh Red”. From the time it was transplanted, it grew rapidly and in a few years bore an abundance of fruit the color and flavor of which attracted the attention of the earlier settlers. It was situated about fifteen feet from the house, and when in 1893 the house was burned, the tree also received its share of the fire and one side was badly burned. Nevertheless, the other side continued to bear until 1908. That summer the leaves began to wilt and the apples to fall off until it was entirely bare. Thus the old tree which had withstood the storm of 112 years was forced at last to submit to the injuries received from the fire of 1893. The wide circulation of the McIntosh apple is due to his son, the late Allen McIntosh, who, fully appreciating the fruit, wished others to enjoy it also and started propagating by grafting and budding from the original tree. This has been repeated year after year since 1836. (From LH Bailey's "Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, 1927)

McMAHON (McMAHON WHITE) H     AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON ANTONOVKA ROOTSTOCK   A very winter hardy variety from seed of Alexander, planted about 1860 by A.L. Hatch of Ithaca, Wisconsin. The tree is vigorous and productive. An excellent cooker, fair for dessert, white flesh that is coarse grained, tender, juicy and subacid. The fruit is large, uniform shape, slightly conical, skin is light yellow becoming white at maturity possibly blushed with red. Harvest October. Zone 4 , likely will succeed in Canada zone 3.      

 MACFREE    DR AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 OR EMLA 9 ROOTSTOCK       A disease resistant McIntosh type, parentage includes 50% McIntosh, 25% Jonathan, also Rome Beauty. Resembles McIntosh in appearance and flavor, harvest after McIntosh season, mid to late October at our location.  Hangs very well, the best hanging Mac type I know of, fruit did not drop until November in 2007.Fruit tend to be small, thin for better size. Tree is moderately vigorous and spreading, blooms with McIntosh. From Agriculture Canada, Smithfield Experimental Station, Trenton, Ontario, 1974. Zone 4  

MACOUN     N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   A McIntosh type apple with more flavor, ripens just after Mac at Siloam Orchards early October. A cross of McIntosh and Jersey Black from the New York State Experimental Station at Geneva NY, !930.   

MAIDEN BLUSH  H     N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015    A beautiful late summer variety, lemon yellow with a crimson blush, not be confused with a rare Irish apple of the same name. The American Maiden Blush was popularized by Samuel Allinson of Burlington, New Jersey, and noted in 1817 as being “popular in the Philadelphia market”. The flesh is white/slightly yellow, crisp, tender, sharply acid at first mellowing as it ripens. For eating and cooking, also one of the best for drying as it remains white and bright.    Maiden Blush photo  

MARGIL    H  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015    Known as early as 1750, of French or English origin. A small apple regarded by many as one of the finest dessert varieties, its sugary flesh exudes a powerful and delicious aroma. Skin is colored orange/red with dark red striping often russeted. Early bloom, harvest September. Tree is of low vigor, somewhat weak and slender.   more on Margil 

MELBA  H     N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   First grown by W.T. Macoun at the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa, Canada, in 1898 and introduced in 1924, a cross of McIntosh and Liveland (Lowland) Raspberry. A summer apple ripening in mid August, attractive coloring of background yellow washed with pinkish crimson, bruises easily. Sweetly subacid, tender, juicy. Winner of the American Pomological Society silver medal in 1898. Very winter hardy, due to having the extremely hardy Liveland Raspberry in its parentage. Easily survives in zone 4.

MICHELIN    CID   AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 26 ROOTSTOCK    Originated in Normandy about 1872 with M. Legrand of Yvetot, Normandy, France and brought to Herefordshire in 1884 by the Woolhope Naturalists Field Club, now widely planted in England. Named after M. Michelin of cider apple renown. Light green/ yellow coloring, small, tree is moderately vigorous and productive, bears in tight clusters, bittersweet for blending, mid season.            

MILWAUKEE   H     N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015         Raised by George Jeffrey of Milwaukee , Wisconsin , a seedling of Duchess. Primarily a cooking apple for cold regions, also good eaten off  the tree if not overripe, slightly tart and acidic as are most good pie apples. The tree is moderately vigorous and spreading, productive; the fruit is usually large, yellowish green blushed and streaked with bright red and crimson. Canada zone 4 at least.       

MOTHER   H    AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK     A September apple resembling Spitzenburg, long conical elongated shape, medium size, yellow background with bright red mottling. Flesh is yellow, juicy, with a distinct sweet/acid, spicy flavor sometimes described as balsamic, aromatic. From Bolton in Worcester County, Massachusetts, circa 1844. Some degree of apple scab resistance.   

MURRAY     DR   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   A disease resistant selection from Agriculture Canada, Smithfield Station, Trenton, Ontario, 1980. Parentage includes 50% McIntosh, 25% Red Melba, also Wolf River and others. A Mac type that is harvested much earlier, late August, essentially a summer McIntosh although softer flesh. Blooms with Mac. Tree is moderately vigorous and spreading, zone 4  

MUSCADET DE DIEPPE    CID    N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   From Normandy , France , 1750. Orange-red small fruit that is sweet and aromatic. Bittersweet cider, produces a good one variety cider.

NEWTOSH         N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015           From Ag Canada Ottawa, 1923, a cross of Mac and Yellow Newtown Pippin. Flavour is reminiscent of Newtown, somewhat strawberry-ish, sweetly subacid ; flesh is greenish-white, juicy, firm, crisp, tender, fine texture. Stores much better than Mac, can keep all winter in cold storage. Harvest early Oct. Tree is hardy, moderately vigorous and productive 

NEWTOWN  PIPPIN  ( ALBEMARLE)    H     not currently in our collection         One of the most famous of the American historical varieties, originating circa 1700 near the village of Newtown on Long Island, New York. Grown widely in the eastern USA by the end of the 18th century by many including George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. An excellent keeper with crisp , firm, juicy flesh and distinctive taste. For protected sites in zone 5 .  

 NON PAREIL H    sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015       One of the oldest apple varieties in our collection, dating back to 1600’s in England. Terrific flavor, a small variety colored greenish yellow ripening to orange and russeted. Harvest late, in Oct.zone 5   

NORTHERN SPY   H    N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015     A famous old variety known for years as one of the best pie apples of the season, also enjoyed as a dessert apple by many. The first seedlings may have been grown in Connecticut     circa 1800, brought to New York and raised by Heman Chapin in East Bloomfield . Mr. Chapin is also responsible for the Melon and Early Joe varieties, and a four foot high monument was erected to honor him and his apples, at Bloomfield by the Ontario County Fruit-Growers Society in early 1900. “THE ORIGINAL NORTHERN SPY APPLE TREE stood about 14 rods south of this spot, in a seedling orchard planted by Heman Chapin about 1800. The Early Joe and Melon apples also originated in this orchard”. FRUITS OF ONTARIO 1906, reports “ In Chicago, Canadian Spys are more sought for than any other variety, but owing to tenderness of the skin, which shows the slightest bruise, it is less popular for export to Great Britain than some other varieties”. The Northern Spy is notorious for being late to begin to bear fruit, on old standard rootstocks it was not uncommon to wait 15 years for the first blossoms. The availability of dwarfing rootstocks has reduced this waiting time considerably, but it may still be behind your other varieties. The fruit is large, sound fruit stores well, harvest in October, not hardy, zone 5. Late season bloomer. Very vigorous.      See also Sandow under disease resistant apples, for a winter hardy Spy, also Quebec Belle

  NORTHWEST GREENING   H     AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON ANTONOVKA ROOTSTOCK             Alexander x Golden Russet , Wisconsin, 1872 E.W. Daniels.Large green for pies or fresh stores well and quite hardy , as hardy as Wealthy. Late Sept?

NOVAMAC     DR  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK  1978, from Ag. Canada, Kentville, NS. Parentage includes 50% McIntosh, also Jonathan, Melba, Red Rome, Wealthy, Starr and Rome Beauty. Similar to McIntosh, earlier to ripen by a week or so, in early September, a bit more tart.  Zone 4  

NOVASPY     DR   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015 1986 from Ag. Canada, Kentville,NS. Parents include 50% Nova Easygro, 25% Red Spy, 25% Golden Delicious. Similar to Northern Spy, picked several weeks earlier. Great for pies. Greenish yellow, striped and blushed dark red. Moderately acid creamy yellow flesh, very firm, crisp, juicy. Harvest early October. Zone 5 only, more tender than others in this group.  

ONTARIO    H     N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015   Introduced by Charles Arnold of Paris Ontario, and offspring of Northern Spy x Wagener, in 1820. Large fruit, colored yellowish with splashes of bright red and carmine; whitish yellow juicy flesh, spright, aromatic, fine grained. All purpose, good in pies as it holds its shape when cooked, good in cider. Bears young, zone 5, stores well, very productive. Moderately vigorous, somewhat spreading, harvest October.  

ORIOLE      WINTER HARDY FOR CANADA ZONE 3     AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON ANTONOVKA  ROOTSTOCK          A selection from the Minnesota breeding program, introduced in 1949, resulting as a cross of Yellow Transparent and Liveland Raspberry. Tree is very hardy, vigorous, spreading, heavy cropper. Fruit ripens early in August. Flavour is sweet and subacid, aromatic ; fruit is often very large, striped and splashed red ; flesh is creamy white, juicy , tender, fine grained. 

  PATTEN GREENING       H   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015         From Iowa mid 1800’s very hardy, large, skin  pale yellow with pale green traces and pink blush; flesh yellow somewhat juicy subacid, pleasant, good quality,  hardier than Wealthy for the north.

PEEWAUKEE   H  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 26 ROOTSTOCK        A cross of Northern Spy x Duchess by George P. Peffer of Peewaukee, Wisconsin in the mid 1800’s. Okay for fresh eating, excellent cooking apple and fairly hardy, survives well in zone 4. The fruit is medium  to often large in size, has a thin greenish yellow skin mottled orange red and striped carmine; flesh is whitish, very juicy, coarse and firm. Late to ripen, a good keeper.  

PENDRAGON           N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015     A redfleshed apple from Cornwall England. We expect to graft our first of this variety in August 2014

PINK PEARL       sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015    From the noted California plant breeder Alfred Etter in 1944. Bright  pink flesh and crimson pink blossoms. The fruit is crisp with a sweet/tart flavor, conical shape; skin is a creamy pale green. The red fleshed variety Surprise is the parent of Pink Pearl .

PINK PRINCESS   R   NOT CURRENTLY IN OUR COLLECTION    Fred Janson of Ontario developed this pink fleshed variety, originally named Pink Lady. He did not patent the name, as he did not believe in fruit patents, and an Australian variety was subsequently patented as Pink Lady, which is the one now available commercially. In 1997, Mr. Janson changed the name of his apple to Pink Princess which has pastel to dark pink flesh, is sweet/tart and aromatic, medium sized, skin color is carmine striping over pink. The parentage is Pink Pearl x King of the Pippins.  

PIXIE CRUNCH ( CO OP 33 )          DR   NOT CURRENTLY IN OUR COLLECTION            Small to mid sized red cultivar with outstanding crispness and flavour. Ripens early Oct. Crisp and breaking, juicy, yellow white flesh. Long ripening and hanging period, up to an amazing 4 weeks thus a great pick your own or backyard variety. Keeps in storage 2 months.  

POMME GRIS (Leathercoat or French Russet)  H  RUSSET VARIETY   AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK    The history of this one is unclear, but it was most likely grown in Europe as early as the 1600’s as Reinette Grise, brought to the St. Lawrence valley by migrant French and grown as Pomme Gris. Confusion also exists between this and Swayzie Russet or Swayzie Pomme Gris, which are distinct varieties. An excellent cider and dessert russet, pear-like richness, slightly tart sweetness, nutty. Tough greenish yellow skin entirely covered with a brown russet, similar appearance to Golden Russet. Grown by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello. Ripens September. Tree is upright in growth and productive.      

  PORTERS PERFECTION       CID    N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015    Bittersharp variety for blended cider. Tree is vigorous and productive, with fruit that is flushed dark red over cream. Ripens very late, in October.

 PRIMATE     H  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015       Introduced 1840 by Calvin D. Bingham of Camillus,New York,unknown parentage. Green skin,may be whitish or lightly blushed. Tender, fine textured, juicy flesh, sweet-tart may be reminiscent of wine, great dessert apple, all purpose, harvest mid to late August, fairly winter hardy , zone 4. In the 1800’s a  highly regarded dessert apple for the summer season, still regarded highly by the few that grow it. Tree is very vigorous, productive, symmetrical. Long harvest window. The “Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, published 1927, states “ The first tablet in New York state in memory of any apple was erected in the town of Camillus, Onondaga County, on the original site of the Primate apple tree (Fig. 263). John T. Roberts, Syracuse, N.Y., on September 11, 1903, caused a bronze tablet to be erected there. On this tablet is the following inscription: On this farm Calvin D. Bingham, about 1840, produced the marvelous PRIMATE  APPLE Named by Charles P. Cowles     GOD’S EARTH IS FULL OF LOVE TO MAN  

PRIMEVERE         DR   NOT CURRENTLY IN OUR COLLECTION           Disease resistant cultivar from Ag Canada, Richelieu Quebec, introduced 1997. Dark cardinal red, pale green flesh, very spicy, rich, sprightly acid at harvest, peak quality after one month in cold storage, quality better after storage than at harvest. Stores well for six months. Ripens 3 weeks after Mac, early Oct at Siloam, hangs very well on tree until overripe.         Detailed description 

PRINCESS LOUISE   H    N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015 originated at Maplehurst near Grimsby Ontario as a chance seedling of Snow. The text Fruits of Ontario 1906 states “Samples were first exhibited by Mr. L. Woolverton at a meeting of the Ontario Fruit Growers Association at Hamilton, where it was given the name Princess Louise, after Her Royal Highness, wife of the then Governor-General, His Excellency the Marquis of Lorne.” A greenish or yellow apple becoming prominently covered with lively red or pinkish blush and stripes. Flesh is pleasantly mild, crisp and juicy, good dessert apple only average for cooking. Flesh is pure white like its parent the Snow apple. Reasonably winter hardy to zone 4, harvest early September. Her full name was Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, and had the Canadian province of Alberta as well as the famous tourist attraction Lake Louise, Alberta, named for her. For more on her story, click on MORE ABOUT PRINCESS LOUISE CAROLINE ALBERTA           

   PRISTINE    DR   sold out for 2014       From PRI,1995, an excellent disease resistant early yellow green variety, sweet/tart. Harvest in August.Zone 4  Detailed description 

PUMPKIN (POUND) SWEET  H  AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 26 ROOTSTOCK    Named for its large size and color, from the orchards of S. Lyman of Manchester, Connecticut, in the early 1800’s. Primarily a cooking apple that was once very popular in the south. Excellent for baking, canning, baked apple, pies and sauce, apple butter, and okay fresh if not overripe. Plantings were made in Ohio in the days of the Civil War specifically for the production o apple butter. Large to very large with a tough clear yellow skin that may occasionally have a reddish orange blush in the sun. The flesh is very sweet, juicy and firm. Ripens in early October. The tree is vigorous and highly productive. Zone 5.

QUEBEC BELLE   AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON ANTONOVKA ROOTSTOCK    The look of Delicious and the quality of Northern Spy, for those who want a Spy with more winter hardiness. Large dark red fruit, keeps well, ripens early October, from Hemmingford Quebec 1956

RED ASTRACHAN       H   N/A  2014 A   pioneer Russian apple to America, possibly to England in 1816 and on to America in 1835. An early ripening summer variety, long prized for distinctive flavored pies and sauce. Widely grown on pioneer farms in our area.The fruit is pale yellow splashed and striped red, although the color varies up to nearly solid red; flesh may be tinged with red when fully ripe, brisk and tart grown here although sweeter in the south where it was once widely grown and popular. Does not store, use or freeze promptly after harvest in August, do not allow to overripen or it is mealy. Very winter hardy, at least zone 4, upright and very vigorous.   

 REDFREE      DR     N/A  2014    Parentage is 50% Raritan, also Jonathan and Rome. A summer variety for the organic grower, ripening inAugust, from PRI 1981. Glossy medium red over yellow; flesh is light cream, mild, low acid. Ripens over a relatively long period, good for home gardens. Zone 4. More on Redfree and photo courtesy Purdue University

REINETTE RUSSET   DR   AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK RUSSET VARIETY  A new release from Ag Canada . At least partially disease resistant, hardier and larger than Golden Russet. A sport of the heirloom apple variety Reine de Reinette. Ripens one or two weeks ahead of Golden Russet, sweet, good for cider.  Detailed description  

RESCUE CRAB    C   N/A   2014   From the Scott Experimental Station, Ag. Canada , introduced 1933. Very winter hardy for the north, some fireblight resistance. Harvested Aug 4 2011 , our first crab of the season. Use for preserves promptly after harvest. Medium size crab, striped dull red, yellowish white flesh. A seedling of Blushed Calville.  

RHODE ISLAND GREENING   H   AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK   One of the oldest  historic apple varieties originating in America, from Green’s End, Newport, Rhode Island about 1650. One of the most important commercial varieties in the northeast in the 1800’s, second only to Baldwin. The fruit has long been prized as a pie apple, one of the best, and enjoyed fresh by those who prefer a tart flavor. The fruit is often large, dark green to lighter green when fully ripe, may have a light blush; flesh is yellowish, crisp, tart, and stores quite well when kept cold, harvest late in October. The tree is vigorous and spreading, very productive. Its productivity was noted in a text of 1906 stating “One large tree at Maplehurst, Grimsby (Ontario), nearly one hundred years planted, yielded twenty barrels one season, and fifteen barrels another”. Reasonably winter hardy, fully hardy in zone 5, likely suitable for Canada zone 4.    Rhode Island Greening photo courtesy Apple Journal   

RIBSTON PIPPIN    H    N/A   2014    An old English variety, often used in English cider and good for baking, also good eaten fresh if not overripe. Discovered at Ribston Hall near Knaresborough, Yorkshire, England, early 1700’s, likely from French seeds, and a parent of many fine English varieties including Cox Orange. The original tree was blown over in 1810, but was rescued, propped up and staked and survived until 1928.The fruit ripens here in late August or early September, we have found that the quality is much improved if harvested before it becomes too ripe on the tree. The color is greenish yellow flushed and striped brownish orange to red, the red becoming more pronounced as it ripens, very high vitamin C. The flesh is pale yellow and rich; tree is vigorous and upright in growth habit. Zone 4, fairly hardy.  

RICHELIEU   DR N/A 2014        One of the hardiest disease resistant apples, having survived the severe Quebec winter of 1980-81. From the Ag Canada breeding program at Ottawa , selected at Smithfield and named at Saint-Jean Quebec 1990.  Parents include Melba, Mac, Jonathan, Rome . Precocious, mid Sept. Medium red over light green, flesh white, juicy, crisp, very good flavour mild to subacid with high sugar and aroma 

ROME  BEAUTY  H  NOT CURRENTLY IN OUR COLLECTION        Probably a seedling of Seek-no-Further (Westfield), recorded in 1848. All purpose, but one of the best baking apples available, and remains an important processing variety in the northeast; keeps its shape and sweet flavour after baking. Ripens in October and stores well, late bloom that is sometimes considered self fruitful. Medium to large, flesh is creamy yellow somewhat coarse. Skin is tough, greenish yellow, mottled, flushed and striped with red. Fruit does not tend to drop early, hangs on tree well until ripe

ROUVILLE   DR AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON ANTONOVKA ROOTSTOCK   Very winter hardy disease resistant selection from Ag. Canada, St. Jean, Quebec, 1983, parents include Wolf River, Melba, Mac. Large red fruit; flesh white to cream, juicy, subacid with high sugar and tannin, ripens August. Vigorous, precocious.  

 ROXBURY RUSSET H     AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 26 ROOTSTOCK      Perhaps the oldest named variety originating in America, from Roxbury, Massachsetts in the 1600’s. Typical russet , sweet, rich, greenish yellow flesh that was one of the main storage types prior to refridgeration, also widely used in the late autumn to produce hard cider as its high sugar content ferments to a lively beverage that was drunk at all meals including breakfast by young and old alike. The fermented cider was stored in barrels for winter use, also for cider vinegar. The skin is greenish tinged bronze and covered with a yellow brown russet, often with a reddish orange blush on the sunny side. Roxbury can be distinguished from Golden Russet by the following characteristics: larger and more elliptical/slightly conic in shape, the tree is more vigorous and more productive, flesh is more distinctly yellow. Zone 5, harvest October, stores well in cold. Resistant to apple scab and a good choice for those without a disease control spray program. Good for fresh eating, cooking, especially cider (higher sugar content than Golden Russet for fermentation )and storage.                  

Additional to Roxbury Russet          Roxbury Russet may be the oldest named apple variety in America. In Volume 1 of Apples of New York State, S.A. Beach wrote that the Roxbury Russet originated in Roxbury, Massacheusetts, in the early 1600's. The descendants of a man named Joseph Warren claim that their ancestor grew the first Roxbury Russet. He was born in Roxbury around 1696 and died there of a broken neck after falling from a ladder while picking apples in 1755.        Whatever the date of origin, Roxbury Russet had  spread throughout the northeast by the late 1700's. In 1850 it was shipped around Cape Horn and planted in Napa Valley, California and remained popular throughout the 1800's as a winter storage apple in the days before refrigeration.             However , the Roxbury Russet was not all that attractive, having a rough, mottled, sometimes bumpy skin. As North Americans stored less apples for themselves and bought  more often  at the market appearance became more important and the Russet clan slid into obscurity.

            The text FRUITS OF ONTARIO 1906 reports " one of the staple export varieties in many parts of southern Ontario because of  it's long keeping qualities. It resists scab well"           The flavor is tart-sweet, spright with greenish-white flesh, juicy, for eating, cooking, storage. Fruit is flattened, rough russet appearance. Tree is fairly vigorous, may  have some disease resistance. Roxbury Russet should be used out of storage prior to Golden Russet.                Harvest of Roxbury Russet at Siloam Orchards takes place in early October. To reserve a sample for tasting call ahead of time  (September ) and we'll put a few away for you.

St. EDMUNDS  PIPPIN     H  RUSSET VARIETY    N/A  2014     One of the earliest Russet apples of the season, ripening in early September. Also one of the most attractive Russets, its skin being smooth golden brown, unlike many rough skinned Russets. Yellow flesh, rich flavor. Does not store like the later Russets. Originated at Bury St. Edmunds, England in 1870

ST. LAWRENCE       H     N/A  2014    A  popular Ontario variety in the 1800’s, from the Montreal area pre 1835, likely a seedling of Snow ( Fameuse ). Renowned in it’s time for pies and preserves, tart, rarely found today. Harvest early Sept. Use promptly , breaks down quickly after harvest.  

SALOME   H  WINTER HARDY FOR CANADA ZONE 3     AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 26 ROOTSTOCK     A winter hardy variety for the north that stores very well and is resistant to apple scab disease. The fruit is medium sized, yellowish flesh with a pleasant sub acid flavor, becomes more juicy and flavorful in storage. All purpose, eating or cooking. It is harvested green but ripens in storage to bright red with darker red striping over a yellowish background. The tree is a slow grower but bears young and annually, productive. Harvest late, in October. Zone 4 at least, possibly zone 3. Originated with E.C. Hathaway of Ottawa, Illinois prior around 1853, who exhibited Salome in 1878 before the Illinois State Horticultural Society.     Grown on Ottawa 3 rootstock

SANDOW    DR  N/A  2014  From Ag. Canada, a seedling of Northern Spy, late harvest in October, stores fairly well. Lively flavour, resistant to apple scab. Much more winter hardy than Spy, reportedly to -40.

SCARLET O'HARA ( CO OP 25 )  DR  NOT CURRENTLY IN OUR COLLECTION       A mid season, red disease resistant apple with excellent storage capabilities. Flavor is sweet / tart, delicately spicy that improves in storage. Detailed description  

SCARLET  PIPPIN   H        A  chance seedling discovered in Leeds County, Ontario, near Brockville Ontario. The flesh of Scarlet Pippin is pure white, tender, crisp, subacid, and juicy. The skin is nearly entirely covered with bright scarlet streaking and splashing. Excellent dessert apple, all purpose. The tree is fairly hardy to Zone 5 and likely Zone 4, upright, vigorous, very productive inclined to overbear. Harvest October. Given the flesh characteristics and the area of its discovery it is very possible that Scarlet Pippin is a descendant of Snow.   

SCOTT WINTER     H       NOT CURRENTLY IN OUR COLLECTION       A winter hardy heritage cooking apple for the north, ripens late and stores very well. The fruit is small to medium sized, slightly conical, yellow skin striped, washed and splashed with red; yellow flesh that is fine grained, crisp, juicy, pleasant sprightly acid flavor. Okay for eating out of storage, great for baking. The tree is vigorous, upright, productive and precocious. From the Scott farm, Newport , Vermont and introduced by Dr. Hoskins of Newport 1864. Zone 4 at least, likely zone 3. Harvest October.   

SCUGOG CRAB     C  R    N/A  2014    Purple flowers, brilliant red fruit for jelly and preserves, red fleshed....seedling of and very similar to Niedwetskyana 

  SEEK-no-FURTHER (WESTFIELD)     H       known at Westfield, Connecticut in 1796, but older. The fruit is medium sized and conic in shape with a greenish yellow skin that is flushed with orange and striped carmine, sometimes with light russet  patches. The flesh is yellowish white, crisp, tender and juicy, mildly astringent, with a distinctive aroma and taste. Usually a bluish bloom (powdery substance) covers the ripe fruit like Blue Pearmain. Tree is vigorous, hardy in zone 5, the fruit will hang on the tree until overripe. Good as a dessert apple and for cider, not a good cooking variety. Harvest October. 

SHAWNEE   (NY75414.1)     DR    Fruit resembles Macoun with 80% purplish red blush on green, a heavy bloom and prominent lenticels. Flesh is white, crisp, juicy, and sprightly. Trees are precocious, productive, and moderately vigorous.   

SHIAWASSEE     H N/A  2014  Snow type apple, more resistant to disease (apple scab) than Snow, with the same pure white flesh as Snow, juicy, crisp, fine grained, excellent flavor, an all purpose variety very good for dessert also for cider and baking. Yellow background color covered with stripes, splash and mottling of dark crimson . Possible parents are Snow and Michigan, known since 1850, from Shiawassee County, Michigan reportedly introduced by Beebe Truesdell of Vernon, Michigan in 1860 Tree is upright and vigorous. Harvest early October, Zone 5.

SIMCOE     C   N/A  2014   Rose pink flowers, reddish bronze foliage, bright red/yellow fruit

 SMOKEHOUSE   H    N/A  2014       From the farm of William Gibbons near Millcreek, Pennsylvania in the early 1800’s, more widely known by 1840, likely a seedling of Vandevere. First grown near the smokehouse on his farm, hence the name. Large fruit, conic in shape, greenish yellow flushed and striped red and carmine with russet dotting. Yellowish white flesh that is crisp, tender, subacid. All purpose, ripens in September.        Smokehouse photo courtesy Applejournal  

 SNOW (FAMEUSE)      sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015    Named for its snow white flesh, this heritage variety first grew in southern Quebec along the St. Lawrence River, from seeds brought from France in the early 1700’s or earlier. Most likely one of the parents of McIntosh.  Snow ripens in early October and has a distinctive taste and texture, all purpose. Zone 5. see also Shiawassee, Princess Louise, Scarlet Pippin.       Snow Photo  courtesy Apple Journal    -not available at this time 

 SPITZENBURG (ESOPUS)  H     N/A  2014        One of Thomas Jeffersons favorites, grown at Monticello. From Esopus, Ulster County, New York mid 1700’s, planted at Monticello in 1790. The fruit has a yellow flesh that is juicy, spright and richly flavored, hard, oblong shaped, colored lively brilliant red/scarlet, improves in storage when picked just prior to becoming fully tree ripe and stores well in this condition. Zone 5, harvest Oct.    Spitzenburg photo courtesy Apple Journal        

STARR (Early Greening)  H   N/A 2014       From the farm of John Starr of Woodburg, New Jersey, in the late 1700's. An early apple of often tremendous size, one of the largest of early season apples often reaching 10-12 inches in circumference. At one time quite popular in the south where it was marketed as Early Greening. Pick green for cooking or let ripen until it yellows slightly when it becomes tender yet fairly crisp, juicy and aromatic. If not allowed to overripen Staar will store longer than some others of this season. 

  STOKES RED       CID  N/A  2014   Medium bittersharp, fruity aroma, high quality for blending or single variety cider. Disease resistant. From England 1920.  Ag Canada publication1988-6E states " Fair to good juice yield. High soluble solids. High titratable acid. Sugar to acid ratio 19. Very high tannin...... fermented product having a distinctly clean flavour with no hint of the undesirable, odd, ester-like flavours sometimes described as perfumy. Used to upgrade tannin, acidity, flavour, and soluble solids in cider blends. Photo and more 

 STRAWBERRY PIPPIN   H    N/A  2014            An   old English variety that is crisp, sweet, juicy, medium size, striped and flushed red. Harvest September, zone 5. 

SUNDANCE ( CO OP 29 )     DR    AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK  A very late season disease resistant apple ripening  with Goldrush and Enterprise in mid even late October. Large, crisp, outstanding spicy flavour. Hangs on the tree well when mature and stores very well. Has Golden Delicious, Winter Banana, Mac and Rome in lineage. 

SWAAR     AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 106 ROOTSTOCK   Originated pre 1770 in the Hudson River Valley, New York, by Dutch settlers (Swaar is "heavy apple" in Dutch). Green/yellow rough skin  with some russetting. Creamy white flesh is sweet and aromatic. Late ripening. Flavor improves and mellows in storage although becoming softer, becoming pear like in flavor. Hangs well, often into winter  

SWAYZIE RUSSET (Swayzie Pomme Gris)  H  RUSSET VARIETY   sold out for 2014          From New York, 1872, states one source, another states that it originated “probably with Col. Swayzie near Niagara”. All sources claim that this is one of the best winter late apples. “There is no choicer winter dessert apple for the months of December and January than the Swazie(sic) Pomme Gris, especially when kept in a cool, dark cellar, so that its crisp texture and excellent flavor may be preserved”. ( Fruits of Ontario 1906). The color is of deep golden yellow covered with cinnamon russet, flavor is rich, distinctive, white, crisp, juicy, fine grained, spright and aromatic. Never widely grown commercially due to its habit of being only moderately productive. Harvest late.  

SWEET ALFORD       CID  sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015   Vintage cider variety in the sweet class, ripens mid season. Fruit is small, pale yellow blushed pink; tree is moderately vigorous and spreading. Often used in blends to balance bittersharp varieties.

  SWEET  BOUGH    H    N/A  THIS VARIETY HAS PROVEN WINTER TENDER FOR US AND IS NO LONGER OFFERED    Very sweet early season apple, large, crisp, juicy, honeyed sweetness with pale yellow/greenish skin. First noted in 1817, from USA. One of the best early apples for fresh eating. Tree is productive and has some disease resistance. Harvest late August?    Sweet Bough photo courtesy Apple Journal

SWEET COPPIN          CID   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015  Mid season, sweet cider variety. England early 1700’s.

SWEET SIXTEEN   WINTER HARDY FOR CANADA ZONE 3   AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON ANTONOVKA  ROOTSTOCK    Very winter hardy apple from Minnesota, a cross of Northern Spy and Minnesota 447, introduced in 1978. Sweet with a nice hint of tang. Ripens early October at our location.

  SWISS LIMBERTWIG     AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 26 ROOTSTOCK    The group of apples known as Limbertwigs is a large one that are known for thin limber branches and a weeping habit as well as for their unique flavor, most of which originated in states of Tennessee, Kentucky and the Carolinas. Swiss Limbertwig originated in the Cumberland Mountains with Swiss settlers, very attractive maroon color and great flavor.

TANGOWINE   DR    AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 26 ROOTSTOCK   Highly resistant to apple scab, this variety exhibits pink veined flesh, is aromatic and uniquely flavored. An attractive red apple picked late, in October, and is fairly winter hardy to Canada zone 4. Apparently from Charles Stultz of Havelock , New Brunswick , popular on Canada ’s east coast.  

TARANADO  ( NY 65707.19)   DR  sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015     Resembles Delicious in appearance and texture. A home grown, tree ripened Delicious that is. If you wanted to grow a Delicious type that is disease resistant this would be the one, however we consider the flavour far superior to Delicious. Excellent storage performance, crisp and juicy. Tree is moderately vigorous and productive.  

TOLMAN SWEET       H    sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015    The origins of Tolman Sweet are unknown, although some claim its parents are Sweet Greening and Old Russet from Massachusetts, known in 1822 but older. A late, greenish yellow variety of unique texture and flavor that is altered in storage.  Makes a good baked apple and is excellent for hard cider, and was once popular for pickling and canning.Very winter hardy suitable for planting in Canada zone 4. Harvest early October, keeps until Christmas.   

TRAIL CRAB   C  WINTER HARDY FOR CANADA ZONE 3  N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015 Large crabapple or applecrab pick late August. Tangy flavor for preserving. Parentage Northern Queen x Rideau from Ag. Canada 1920. Very winter hardy. Zone 3. 

TREMLETTS BITTER       CID     N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015      An old English cider apple, some 200 year old trees are still producing in England! Bittersweet, mid season, medium sized fruit that is yellowish flushed with red. Tree is moderately vigorous and precocious.   Ag Canada publication1988-6E states " Fair juice yield. High soluble solids. Low titratable acid. Sugar to acid ratio 47. Very high tannin. ..... fermented product having a distinctly clean flavour with no hint of the undesirable, odd, ester-like flavours sometimes described as perfumy. Used to upgrade tannin, flavour, and soluble solids in cider blends. 

VIKING  -      WINTER HARDY FOR CANADA ZONE 3    N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015     origin -introduced in South Dakota 1925, as a selection from Scandinavian scions, parents include Jonathan , Delicious, Early McIntosh, Starr.  Large, dark red early apple, somewhat tart, tangy flavour.  Pick Aug. Zone 3 Winter hardy for prairie conditions. 

  WAGENER      H     N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015      In 1796, Abraham Wagener purchased an orchard from George Wheeler in Penn Yan, New York, which contained seedling apple trees planted earlier by Mr. Wheeler. From this plot arose the variety that was named Wagener which subsequently became a very popular apple particularly in the south.  An excellent cooking type, also good for fresh eating with yellowish white flesh that is very juicy and fine grained. The fruit is medium sized to large with a thin smooth pale yellow surface overlaid with glossy pinkish red. Ripens late, in October, zone 5. Sweet/tart, spright, aromatic, bears heavily. The famed author Beach called it an apple of “superior excellence”. May have resistance to apple scab, also a good cider type. 

WEALTHY  H  sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015     One of the first of the varieties bred in America with the hope of developing an apple for the north that had desirable qualities, moreso than the native cold hardy crabapples, to go along with the Russian apples already existing in North America.   Developed by Peter Gideon at Excelsior, Minnesota, in the 1860’s,  from a seed source of Cherry Crab. Named for his wife, the former Wealthy Hull. In 1882 the Wealthy apple was distributed among the members of the Ontario Fruit Growers Association for trial and won itself a good reputation, particularly in the north due to its superior cold hardiness.  An excellent cooking variety ripening in early September. Zone 4.   The Wealthy apple is commemerated on a monument at Excelsior, Minnesota with the following note: “ The tablet was unveiled and dedicated with appropriate ceremonies on the old farmstead, where he passed (Peter Gideon) the last forty-six years of his life, at 2 o’clock on the afternoon of Saturday, June 15, 1912. The memorial consists of a block of granite, raised on a platform of solid concrete, surrounded by a chain supported by a number of black iron posts. On the sloping top of stone is a bronze tablet bearing this inscription: This Tablet commemorates Peter M. Gideon who grew the original WEALTHY APPLE TREE from seed on this, his homestead, in 1864. Erected by the Native Sons of Minnesota, June, 1912.” The area of about ½ acre was named Gideon Memorial Park. The above was taken from the classic text by L.H. Bailey, Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture , 1927.    

 WILLIAMS PRIDE   DR  NOT CURRENTLY IN OUR COLLECTION    Dark red to purple, large, mildly acidic, crisp and firm. If picked promptly when ripe, stores fairly well for a summer variety, better than many. Harvest late August. From PRI,  1988. Zone 4.    More on Williams Pride and photo courtesy Purdue University

WINESAP   H    AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON EMLA 26 ROOTSTOCK  

WINTER BANANA     sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015           Originated with David Flory, Cass County, Indiana, introduced in 1890, of unknown parentage. Fruit is very attractive with tender smooth thin skin, waxy, bright pale yellow with red blush, medium to large oblong fruit. Flesh is whitish tinged with yellow, juicy, somewhat crisp; flavour is sweet to very sweet with a bit of tang, aromatic. Ripens late Sept., stores fairly well. Tree is winter hardy and vigorous, may be droopy, bears young and heavily.

WINTER REDFLESH     C  R     NOT CURRENTLY IN OUR COLLECTION    A winter hardy red fleshed crab variety with purple flowers and bronze-red foliage. Parents are Sasha x Redflesh

WISMERS DESSERT       N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015 From J.H. Wismer of Port Elgin , Ontario , introduced in 1897, of unknown parentage. Cream coloured, tender, crisp flesh  is intense, rich, sweet-sharp, nutty. Medium sized apples shaded and striped bright red. Tree is very winter hardy, vigorous and productive. 

 WOLF RIVER   H    AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON ANTONOVKA ROOTSTOCK  A large to enormous  apple ripening in  September here, great for cooking, applesauce and butter, very winter hardy, comfortable in zone 4.  The story as we know it says that William Springer of Quebec left for his new homestead in Wisconsin in 1856, and along the way acquired some apples said to be Alexander. He planted the seeds at his new home on the banks of the Wolf River near Freemont, and later arose the apple tree that would come to be known as Wolf River.   The skin is greenish yellow covered with red and carmine splashing and striping, flesh is soft and tender and it does not store well.    

YARLINGTON MILL     CID    sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015    One of the true Somerset Jersey cider apples, bittersweet, oxidizes quickly producing a dark cider that is light and aromatic, late ripening. From Yarlington, West Cadbury in the 1800’s, found growing out of a wall near a water wheel at the mill site. Small fruit, pale yellow. Tree is moderately vigorous and very productive. Vintage cider type.   Ag Canada publication1988-6E states " poor juice yield. High soluble solids. Low titratable acid. Sugar to acid ratio 48. Very high tannin...good for making cider where its high tannin and soluble solids are useful in fermented cider blends tannin.     More and photo      

 YELLOW BELLFLOWER (BISHOPS PIPPIN   H   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015  A likely parent of  Red Delicious, from Burlington, New Jersey of unknown age but considered an old type by 1817. This yellow small to medium sized apple is conical, usually ribbed, with a pale yellow coloring often blushed reddish brown. Flesh is yellowish white, firm, crisp, juicy and aromatic. Stores okay, flavor mellows in storage. Tender, zone 5 only. Popular on the east coast where it is known as Bishops Pippen. Harvest late, in October. Good as an all purpose variety, excellent for cider.

YELLOW TRANSPARENT   H    AVAILABLE FALL 2014 ON ANTONOVKA ROOTSTOCK    An old Russian apple arriving in America by 1870, one of the pioneer Russian varieties to America. One of the first to ripen, in early August here, known for its quality smooth creamy sauce. Yellow green,  does not store must be used promptly. Never a popular commercial variety due to its short shelf  life and easily bruised, but great as a home orchard type for an early apple that is extremely winter hardy, even in Canada zone 3.

YORK IMPERIAL   H   NOT CURRENTLY IN OUR COLLECTION     Introduced in 1830, from the Johnson farm near York, Pennsylvania, originally named Johnsons Fine Winter. One of the best winter keepers, long prized for it’s ability to store through the winter and retain it’s quality and flavor. Yellow/green with red/carmine flush,striping and dots. Yellow flesh is sweet/acid and sprightly. Harvest October.  

ZABERGAU REINETTE       H     sold out for fall 2014 / spring 2015     A German russet apple , likely the largest russet type , 1885. Eating qualities improve in storage ; triploid variety      more on Zabergau

ZUCCALMAGLIO REINETTE   H   N/A  fall 2014 / spring 2015  From Germany 1870's ; a variety with an exotic blend of strawberry, pear and a touch of pineapple due to its likely parent of Ananas Reinette. Rough brownish russeted skin.

NOTES FROM THE PAST   Todays commercial growers in North America particularly on the west coast are taking a hard look at the future sustainability of Red Delicious, the worlds apple leading variety. Is it overplanted? Yes they say,we should focus more on newer, quality varieties. As it turns out, this is not a new development. The following is an excerpt from a text in the early 1900’s:

             “ The question of the probability of over-production immediately arises. Most of the growers are still optimistic, thinking that for various reasons many of the orchards will never reach the bearing age and that with the rapidly growing population, the increasing opportunities for exporting, the raising of varieties of better quality, and with better methods of  grading and packing, the supply will not exceed the demand for any considerably time”.

          MARKETING. The apple crop in general farming districts is mostly disposed of within the limits of the territory and usually in the local market. The more extensive growers, however, ship large quantities to the eastern cities, and varying quantities, depending on the supply, are exported. Progress in grading and packing has been slow, chiefly because of lack of necessity.  (This necessity was soon to increase, more so post WW11)…… Peddlers come to the orchard, take the fruit away and bring the barrels back”.  

A FEW PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED IN 1900

KEROSENE EMULSION          ½ pound hard soap or 1 quart soft soap            1 gallon boiling water            2 gallons coal oil  

WHALE OIL SOAP        1 pound in 7 gallons hot water

TOBACCO DECOCTION       2         pounds refuse tobacco    5         gallons water

Notes from 1900              Spraying is absolutely necessary nowadays to ensure good fruit every year. There are so many injurious insects and fungus diseases which attack the trees and fruit that it is  very rarely a tree, if unsprayed, will escape being affected by something which will lessen he crop of No. 1 fruit. …….  Labor is expensive and hard to get on the average farm, hence a sprayer should be purchased which will economize time and labor as much as possible.”  

VARIETY NOTES FROM EARLY 1900

        In the 1800’s there were thousands of apple varieties throughout North America, when produce was purchased locally. As transportation methods improved, the supply of goods was no longer limited to the local producer, thus apple varieties that would stand up to transport and look good on the shelf began to take priority, and the vast majority of these many apple varieties fell into obscurity.              This is from a report in the early 1900’s:

        “ In New York, ….. the leading varieties in the bearing orchards are Baldwin, Rhode Island, Northern Spy, Tompkins King, Roxbury, Hubbardston, Esopus (Spitzenburg), Golden Russet, Ben Davis, Tolman, Black Gilliflower, Twenty Ounce, Swaar, Westfield, Pumpkin Sweet, Fameuse, Fall Pippin, Yellow Bellflower, McIntosh, Wealthy, Oldenburg, Red Astrachan, Jonathan, Yellow Newtown, Green Newtown, Maiden Blush, Gravenstein, Blue Pearmain, Early Harvest, Alexander, and Yellow Transparent. Many of these varieties are still being planted, but the tendency is to set fewer varieties and more of the leading commercial sorts”  

    “ Here ( New England States)  the leading varieties in the older orchards are Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, Northern Spy, Roxbury, Ben Davis, Fameuse, Tolman, Hubbardston, Oldenburg, Red Astrachan, Bethel, Twenty Ounce, McIntosh, Yellow Bellflower, and Wealthy. The later plantings are mostly of higher quality varieties, including Northern Spy, McIntosh, Wealthy, Fall Pippin, Sutton, Wagener, Red Canada, Esopus (Spitzenburg), Gravenstein, Yellow Transparent, Red Astrachan, Famuese, Tompkins King and Williams. The Baldwin, however, continues to be the most popular variety in New England”.               Note that the Delicious varieties which became so popular later in the 20th century, are nowhere to be seen on these lists of the popular and widely planted types.

  “Varieties of apples recommended for Canada.

          Ontario ( districts bordering Lake Ontario and Lake Huron, and southwestern Ontario): Summer- Red Astrachan, Oldenburg. Fall- Gravenstein, Wealthy, Alexander, McIntosh, Fameuse, Blenheim. Winter- Tompkins King, Rhode Island Greening, Baldwin, Northern Spy, Cranberry, Stark.            Hardiest varieties for coldest parts of Canada: Summer to autumn- Blushed Calville, Lowland Raspberry, Oldenburg, Charlamoff. Autumn to winter- Antonovka, Wealthy, Hibernal, McMahon, Longfield, and Patten. Crab-apples- Whitney, Virginia Martha, Transcendant, Hyslop, and the small hybrid apples originated by Wm. Saunders.  

“THE WEALTHY BELT         The mid continental territory in which Wealthy is, generally speaking, the leading variety, includes northern Illinois, the north half of Iowa, and practically all of the apple growing districts of Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota, and northern Nebraska. Among the more important varieties associated with it are, for the more northern parts, Oldenburg, Okabena, Patten (Patten Greening), and Malinda. Among the very hardiest of the large size apples for the north are those of the Hibernal group,… for culinary uses. In the southern part of the Wealthy belt are grown hardy varieties of more or less local value such as Salome, Windsor, Black Annette, and Colorado Orange, varieties which as yet have not established themselves in the great world markets…..”

 

CLAUDE JOLICOEUR CIDER APPLES

cjoliprsf.awardspace.biz 

"This message is to tell about 3 exclusive apples that I use for my ciders. They are exclusive in the sense that they are apples that I discovered and have informally named. I haven't propagated them much yet. After many years of using them, I think they have enough merits to be tested in other locations than my orchard. These 3 apples are very hardy in my zone 4 location and ripen well in a short and cool season. First, here is a description of them:

   "Douce de Charlevoix" (Charlevoix Sweet in English) is an apple that I collected in the village of Baie-Saint-Paul, county of Charlevoix, Quebec. It appears to be from a seedling rootstock that overgrew the grafted variety. This apple could be classified as a sweet or as a mild bittersweet, suitable for early season cider. In my orchard, about 50 miles NE of Quebec City, zone 4, I normally harvest it during first week of September and press it about 2 weeks later. This is about the same timing as Bulmer's Norman and Breakwell's Seedling. Since 1992 when I first pressed some of these apples, I have obtained juice with a S.G. ranging from 1.047 to 1.057, and titrable acidity expressed as tartaric acid from 0.25% to 0.4%. These numbers are quite comparable to those I have obtained from the Bulmer's Norman, although the latter is some years slightly higher in density and in acidity. Douce de Charlevoix is a very handsome apple that reach about 2.5 inches across, it is conical in shape and striped orange-red on a greenish background. It is productive annually, vigourous and hardy. In my orchard, it gets very little scab even if I don't spray. It is also one of my most efficient apples in terms of yield of juice per weight of apples. The juice has an excellent flavour with a mild bitterness - it is not very interesting to drink nature because of the lack of acidity. The only drawback I find to this apple for cider is that I would prefer a higher sugar content.

     "Banane amère" (Bitter Banana in English) is from a huge multi-trunk seedling tree that was growing on my property when I bought it in 1982. This tree is about 50 feet high and its lowest branches are still too high to pick even with a ladder! So I pick the apples on the ground when they fall, usually by end of September or beginning of October. This apple is unedible, it is extremely bitter with a faint banana aroma (hence the name I give it). It could be classified as a full bittersweet with hard tannin. Since 1994, juice density has ranged between 1.055 and 1.062, with acidity between 0.15% and 0.35%. Those numbers are comparable to those I have obtained from the Yarlington Mill apple, which, of the apples that I grow, is the most similar. However, Yarlington Mill is not as hardy and does not ripen well every year in my location. Banane amère is suitable in late season blends, mostly with table apples that have a lot of acidity and no bitterness. It adds a lot of body and tannin to the cider and can give the character of a true English cider to a blend of juices with no special cider character (e.g. McIntosh, Lobo, etc.). However, in my experience, it should not be used in a ratio exceeding 25% of the blend as the cider may become too harsh. So, overall, I think it is a valuable apple for blending and improving characterless juice, but I don't think it could be a good variety for a single varietal cider because its tannin is too hard. The Banane amère apples normally reach 2.5 inches across and are mostly green with a bit of pale red. The juice yield is fair and the juice obtained is very thick and very dark brown. Some years it gets scab fairly badly, but most years it is almost clean of it.

   "Bilodeau" is a crab apple that I obtained from a friend named Claude Bilodeau. He got it from a nursery as a tagging error as this tree was supposed to be of another variety. I have never been able to know if it is a named variety and to identify it. It mostly looks like the Robin crab, but it has some notable differences. This small apple ripens with the Douce de Charlevoix and I usually harvest and press them together. I started using it in 1996, and since then, the juice obtained has had a S.G. ranging from 1.066 to 1.073, with titrable acidity between 0.8% and 1% (which is very reasonable for a crab). It also has a noticeable amount of tannin. Actually, this apple makes a perfect blend with Douce de Charlevoix as both apples complement each other very well, Bilodeau bringing the sugar while Douce de Charlevoix mellows the acidity and adds its mild bitterness. The cider that I presented in December 2007 at the GLOWS competition was mostly made from this blend - it earned a bronze medal. Bilodeau is a small apple, usually 1-3/4 inch across. It is very beautiful, bright yellow covered with a nice red, sometimes with varying amount of russet. It never gets any scab, but the curculios seem to go for them and I sometimes have to accept small crops. It's other drawback is that it is a favorite of all the family and some years there is not much left for the cider! The juice yield is good and the tree is hardy and vigorous.

I have posted some pictures of these apples - they may be seen at: http://picasaweb.google.com/cjoliprsf/ExclusiveCiderApples and, for those interested, there are a few other albums, including some pictures of the orchard and of my homemade press at: http://picasaweb.google.com/cjoliprsf In conclusion, I think these 3 apples are interesting alternatives to the use of European cider apples which may not adapt well in some locations, mostly the colder locations with short and cool summer. If some of the readers of this network are interested in testing them I can send some grafting wood this spring. Note that I have no idea on how many of you will respond to this and I have limited amount of wood. So, I will figure things when I get a feedback... You may contact me directly by cliking my name to reach my page and then on "Send a private message" in the right of the page. Eventually, I would like to get a feedback from the testers. I will probably send you a questionnaire in a couple of years asking how many grafts you have, on what type of rootstock, how much growth they have had, any defect you may have noticed and eventually on your opinion about the fruit

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

 

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