ALEXANDER (Emperor Alexander) A Russian apple introduced to England likely in 1817 (reports vary on the year) and from England to the USA in the early 1800’s, along with many other Russian apples notably Yellow Transparent, Duchess and Red Astrachan, in an effort to find varieties with cold hardiness suitable for commercial production. The fruit is usually large with a tough thick skin, greenish with red and carmine stripes and splashing. Flesh is coarse, firm, crisp and tart/sweet. Does not store long, but ripens over a long picking window of several weeks. The tree is vigorous and early to bear. Quite winter hardy to at least Canada zone 4. A likely parent of Wolf River. Harvest in early October as a dessert also quite good as a culinary variety.
ANANAS REINETTE (PINEAPPLE REINETTE) Order now for LATE FALL 2017 / SPRING 2018 on EMLA 111 roots From the Netherlands 1821. A smallish golden yellow apple with russetting and a pineapple flavor becoming more pronounced as it ripens. Intense flavor, sweet/sharp, all purpose, aromatic. Late to ripen, October. Tree is of low vigor, dwarfing, suitable for small gardens.
BALDWIN (Woodpecker or Pecker) A monument was erected in Wilmington, near Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1895, to the Baldwin apple, with the following inscription: “This Pillar Erected in 1895 By The RUMFORD HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION Incorporated April 28, 1877 Marks the estate where in 1793 Samuel Thompson, Esq., while locating the line of the Middlesex Canal, discovered the first Pecker apple tree. Later named the BALDWIN”. ( From Bailey’s Cyclopedia, 1927, other sources claim it was discovered by John Ball in 1740, another claims it came from John Ball in 1784, in Wilmington, ). “Fruits of Ontario, 1906” states about the Baldwin apple “The Baldwin apple originated in the state of Massachusetts and has been for many years the most popular winter apple for either home or foreign markets”. Towards the end of WW1 several extreme winters killed off most of the Baldwin trees and orchards were replanted with the newly popular McIntosh, spelling the end of Baldwin as a popular variety. The fruit is often large with a yellow background shaded and splashed with crimson and red and spotted with russet dots. Flesh is yellowish white, tender, juicy, subacid yet spright and aromatic. Fine as a dessert apple and a good cooker, also good for freezing and drying. The tree is vigorous, upright and spreading and productive. Harvest late, stores well. Triploid variety. Zone 5. Somewhat tender
BELLE de BOSKOOP From Holland circa 1850, possibly from the variety Reinette de Montford arising as a bud sport. From the Ottolander family nursery at Boskoop, Holland. An outstanding dessert, culinary and storage apple that will improve and sweeten while in cold storage. Often large, greenish yellow flushed with red and light russeting. The flesh is acidic, lively, spright, crisp and aromatic. Slow to begin to bear but a decent cropper when mature. Triploid variety will not pollinate others. Harvest late, in October, stores well. Resistant to apple scab.
BEN DAVIS One of the most commercially important apples in the south in the 1800’s prized for its ability to keep in storage. Often rock hard when picked, its eating quality improves after several months. You love it or hate it. Bright yellow skin with dark red mottling and blushing. Baileys Cyclopedia 1927 identifies the mid west as the “Ben Davis belt.-Generally speaking, Ben Davis is the leading variety in central and southern Illinois, the south half of Iowa, and the apple growing districts of Arkansas ,Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, and the south half of Nebraska. With its close kin, the Gano and the Black Ben Davis, which evidently are highly colored sports of Ben Davis; it probably produces at least one-half of the commercial apple crops in this region.
BLACK GILLIFLOWER (Sheepnose) Also known as Sheepnose due to its distinctive shape, oblong, dark red to almost black in color. Flesh is greenish white, somewhat dry, coarse, mildly sub-acid and tender, with a distinct aroma and flavor. All purpose, for dessert or baking, harvest prior to becoming overripe as it will hang on the tree well past maturity into the winter. Tree is upright and vigorous. A possible parent of Red Delicious, grown in Connecticut in the early 18th century. Excellent for drying. Coming soon to our collection-not available at this time
BLACK OXFORD A dessert, cooking, drying and cider apple from Maine in the 1860’s. The fruit is colored deep purple with black bloom. Resistant to disease. Late ripening, in October.
BLENHEIM ORANGE A very famous old apple in Britain originating in Woodstock, near Blenheim in Oxfordshire, England, 1740, near the residence of the Duke of Marlboro, and was well known through Europe and America by 1820-1840. “Fruits of Ontario 1906” states, “An apple that is constantly gaining in favor with both grower and consumer, because of its size, its beauty, its evenness of form and general excellence for cooking and dessert purposes.” An all purpose large variety yellowish with red and light russet covering. Crisp, sweet with light tartness, lightly spicy or nutty aftertaste. Triploid variety will not pollinate others. Vigorous, harvest October.
BLUE PEARMAIN an antique apple of unknown origin, likely from the New England states early 1800’s. Popular in Britain in the mid 1800’s, likely as a result of fruit and trees being shipped there from America, although the possibility exists that it has its origins in Britain. The fruit is usually large, slightly conical, a dull yellow splashed and striped with dark purple, may be solid dark reddish/purple in full sun, has a conspicuous blue bloom ( a powdery substance on the fruit), flesh is yellowish, firm, mildly acid, rich and aromatic, skin is somewhat tough. Tree is vigorous but a shy bearer. All purpose, good in cider. Like Golden Russet it may shrivel in storage yet retain good flavor; do not pick until it is ripe and provide storage humidity to help prevent shriveling. Pick October, hardy in Canada zone 5/4.
BOTTLE GREENING A chance seedling discovered growing near the border of New York and Vermont in the early 1800’s. Work gangs in the area were accustom to stashing their bottles in the hollow trunk of the original tree, which became known as the Bottle Tree, and later the Bottle Greening. A good dessert apple and excellent for cooking and cider, it was never widely grown commercially as it bruises fairly easily thus was not desirable for shipping. The fruit is medium large in size, slightly conical, yellowish green with red on the sunny side, skin is tough. Flesh is greenish white, tender, juicy, melting, subacid. Tree is vigorous, productive, and fairly winter hardy to zone 4. Pick October, stores fairly well. A good example of an antique apple that did have merits worthy of commercial production, but remains highly desirable in the home garden. Fairly winter hardy, zone 4
BRAMLEY’S SEEDLING Another of the most famous of British apples, prized as one of the best pie apples ever, just ask an Englishman! This one is said to have originated with Mary Anne Brailsford in Nottinghamshire, England and introduced in 1865 by a later owner of the property, Mr. Bramley. The fruit is large, greenish yellow with reddish brown striping. The flesh is firm, juicy and sharply acid, high vitamin C content. The tree is vigorous and spreading, resistant to apple scab, and is a triploid type that will not pollinate others. Tender in our area and needs a sheltered microclimate, zone 5. Also makes a terrific addition to a blended cider. Harvest October.
CALVILLE BLANC D’HIVER (WHITE WINTER CALVILLE) The classic French dessert apple dating back to the 1500’s, growing at Orleans in the gardens of Louis XIII in 1627. Large, somewhat flattish shape with ribbing, pale green often with red dotting on the sunny side. After ripens to yellow in storage where it develops maximum flavor. Very high vitamin C, as much as an orange, effervescent taste. Harvest late, in October, stores well, excellent as a dessert apple, for cider, cider vinegar, and culinary use. Zone 5
CANADA RED The fruit is medium to large in size, mostly uniform. An apple of disputed heritage, likely first grown in New England and brought from Toronto, Ontario into western New York state where it was raised commercially as Canada Red. Described as being of good quality for a mid winter apple in ‘FRUITS OF ONTARIO, 1906’. Skin is yellow background covered with deep red blush and darker red striping. Flesh is whitish with green or yellow tinting, firm, crisp, juicy and fine grained. Late fall harvest.
CELESTIA One of the best tasting apples one can find, very rare. The skin is pale green that becomes yellowish at maturity and may be blushed pink. Extremely juicy, luscious, crisp and tender, very pleasant, rich. This one was described in 1887 as having a spicy flavor and very aromatic by Warder, also noted in other texts up to about 1900, after which it disappeared, apparently extinct. Its reappearance is credited to Conrad Gemmer of Susquehanna, Pa., in the 1980’s, in an old New Jersey orchard.
CHENANGO STRAWBERRY An elongated porcelain skinned small to medium sized apple. Harvest must take place just as the fruit begins to ripen, as it turns milky white, may have a pink blush becoming more pronounced as it ripens. When picked at the right time flavor is unique and fruity, early September at Siloam Orchards. From New York, known since at least 1850. Zone 5.
COLE’S QUINCE From Cornish, Maine, as early as 1806. Also known as Pear Apple or Quince Apple due to its high quince or pear flavor and aroma. Raised by Captain Henry Cole, and described by his son S.W. Cole in his text “American Fruit Book”, in 1849. A summer apple ripening in August, used for culinary purposes when ripening and dessert when fully tree ripened. Yellow skin that may have a sunny side red flush, yellowish white flesh that is mildly acidic, crisp, tender, and juicy. Small to medium size, somewhat flat and ribbed.
CORNISH GILLIFLOWER Coming soon to our collection-not available at this time An English apple discovered in the late 1700’s and introduced in 1813, from Truro, Cornwall. A good example of why many antique apples are not grown today, as it is unattractive with a rough, bumpy, dry skin, a dull green coloration with brownish red and rough russet overlay. However, if you taste it you discover a flesh with exceptionally rich flavor with a pleasant aroma reminiscent of cloves (hence the name Gilliflower – see antique apple names). Shape is conical tapering to a five pointed nose like Delicious. A tip bearer on long slender branches, the fruit will hang until overripe, must be watched for appropriate picking date in October. Low vigor, usually a naturally dwarf tree.
COX ORANGE PIPPIN The most famous of the old English apples, known throughout the world for its excellent eating qualities, unfortunately tender and cannot survive in the colder growing districts. It originated with Richard Cox, (1777-1845) at Colebrook Lawn, England around the 1820’s, from the probable parents Ribston Pippin and Blenheim Orange. The taste has been described as spicy, honeyed, nutty, rich full flavored, sweet/tart, one of the best of dessert apples. The skin is yellowish covered with a reddish orange flush ripening to a mostly orange color, sporadically russetted, and medium size. Cox Orange has been used widely as a parent in breeding programs to produce many excellent new varieties, such as Gala of which it is a grandparent. Tender, zone 5 in protected microclimates only, harvest October. For a more complete story on Cox Orange Pippin, visit http://www.england-in-particular.info/cox.html CRANBERRY PIPPIN A cooking apple of extreme beauty with white juicy subacid flesh. Medium to large size, oblate, yellow background shaded and striped with two shades of red. The tree is very vigorous, spreading and productive, Zone 5, harvest October. Discovered as a chance seedling on a farm near Hudson, New York.
CRIMSON BEAUTY (EARLY RED BIRD) A very winter hardy Canadian historical variety first grown by Francis Sharp of Upper Woodstock, New Brunswick in the mid 1800’s. One of the first apples to ripen in late July or early August, it may have a raspberry flavor. A seedling of Snow. Suitable for Zone 3, grown on the hardy Ottawa 3 rootstock. Available spring 2006. Has been grown successfully in Alaska. In the early 1900’s, Stark Brothers Nursery sold this apple under the trademarked name of Early Red Bird, advertising it as the earliest of all apples. When fully ripe it has veins of red running through the flesh, and produces a terrific red applesauce.
DUCHESS (of Oldenburg) One of the pioneer Russian apples to America via England. It was known in Russia in the 1600’s or early 1700’s, reportedly introduced to England by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1824, and into America by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 1835. Valued for its extreme winter hardiness (Canada zone 4 possibly 3). A cooking apple that makes some of the best early season pies as it ripens in August here. The fruit is medium to sometimes large, greenish yellow with red splashing and striping, flesh is greenish to yellowish white at maturity, firm, brisk, acidic. Must be harvested before it becomes overripe or it will be mealy. May have some disease resistance.
EARLY HARVEST This very early yellow apple is similar in appearance to and often confused with Yellow Transparent, with both varieties ripening in late July to early August. Early Harvest however, has a crisper flesh than Yellow Transparent and better quality for fresh eating, also excellent for sauce. Described by McMahon in 1805 as Prince’s Harvest and by Coxe in 1817 as Early French Reinette. Originated in Long Island, New York in the 1700’s.
EGREMONT RUSSET An old English russet known in 1872. Sweet, rich, somewhat nutty taste, firm, somewhat dry; flavor changes and becomes more complex in storage. One of the best of the russets, darker than most and often with black markings. Stores well, and is likely the most winter hardy of the russets, zone 4, resistant to apple scab, tree is upright and moderately vigorous and a good cropper. Harvest October
ELLISON’S ORANGE An English apple from Lincolnshire known in 1911, a cross of Cox Orange Pippin x Calville Blanc. A medium sized dessert variety, golden yellow with crimson striping. The flesh is tender and juicy, spright, lively, spicy with a somewhat anise flavoring.
GOLDEN REINETTE An old European variety, known in the 1700’s, possibly earlier. A small attractive apple, greenish golden yellow often with a blush of orangey red and russet spots, with a spright sweet/tart, fruity taste similar to Blenheim Orange. Excellent for dessert, also cider, may have some resistance to apple scab. Harvest October.
GOLDEN RUSSET The most famous of the russets; when most speak of russets they mean this one and are often unaware of the others in the large russet family. This is of American origin, a seedling of English Russet, known in the 1800’s and likely earlier, possibly originating in Burlington County, New Jersey in the 1700’s. One of the latest to fully tree ripens in October, notable for its storage ability. It can keep all winter in cold storage. It may shrivel in storage yet retain good flavor. The mistake is often made in harvesting Golden Russet too early; it must be left to hang on the tree almost as late as possible, and provided with humidity in storage to prevent breakdown and shriveling. Excellent for eating and prized as a cider variety, known to produce a hard cider of up to 7% alcohol due to its high sugar content (hic!); also good for drying. The skin is the typical russet, a greenish yellow background with a covering of bronze / copper/ orange coloring. The flesh is fine grained, crisp and sugary. Some resistance to apple scab.
GOLDEN SWEET One of the sweetest apples with little or no acid to balance the sweetness. Described as eating a spoon of honey. Ripens early to early mid-season, smooth thin waxy yellow skin. Golden Sweet is an old historical variety from Connecticut, early 1830’s, once popular in the south. Great for an apple sauce without sugar.
GRAVENSTEIN A historical apple with perhaps the most disputed origins of all the antique European varieties; everyone wants to claim it! From Germany to Russia to Denmark and elsewhere, all say the Gravensteiner came from their country. Introduced to America in the 1820’s by Russian settlers in California. Prized as one of the best pie and sauce early season apples, ripening in early September here. A tender variety, it needs a sheltered microclimate to survive winter in Canada zone 5, popular on the east coast of Canada. We are currently testing various strains of Gravenstein from Norway to hopefully find one that is more winter hardy for our area. A bright yellow skin is overlaid with a pink/orange flush and light red striping. Flesh is creamy yellow and tender, crisp when not overripe, juicy and aromatic, does not keep. Triploid type will not pollinate others.
GRIMES GOLDEN One of the finest American apples for fresh eating and for producing a potent hard cider, although it does not cook well. Discovered by Thomas Grimes between 1790 and 1804 in Brooke County, West Virginia, near the site of the John Chapman (Johnny Appleseed) nursery. Believed to be one of the parents of Golden Delicious, which superseded Grimes Golden commercially due to its larger size, cleaner appearance and therefore better consumer acceptance, relegating Grimes Golden to the historical bin. A granite monument stands at the site of the original tree. The fruit is small if not thinned as it tends to overcrop, has a tough yellow skin often patched with russet. The flesh is yellowish orange, highly flavored, spicy sweet, tender, crisp, juicy, aromatic. Ripens in October and stores well. Zone 5.
HIBERNAL An apple of Russian origin valued for its cooking qualities and winter hardiness. Tree is vigorous and spreading, productive. The fruit is large, yellowish striped and splashed with red and small white dots, yellowish flesh, tender, crisp, juicy, and astringent acid. Harvest September for great pies, winter hardy in Canada zone 3. Known since at least 1880 and described in “Fruits of Ontario, 1906”.
HOLSTEIN A seedling of Cox Orange from Holstein, Germany, discovered in 1918. Similar to Cox but larger, color is like Cox, yellow with varying red flush and russetting. Flesh is creamy yellow, firm, juicy and aromatic. The tree is resistant to apple scab, vigorous and spreading. It is a triploid variety that will not pollinate others. Stores fairly well, harvest in September. Substantially more winter hardy than Cox Orange Pippin
HUDSON’S GOLDEN GEM A disease resistant, large russet variety of excellent quality found in a fence row growing wild at Hudson Nursery, Tangent, Oregon, 1931. Crisp, sugary, light yellow flesh, somewhat nutty flavor almost pear-like at maturity; smooth russet skin, conical and elongated. Harvest late September.
IRISH PEACH (Early Crofton) An old Irish variety known in the early 1800’s, possibly from Eire in 1820, likely has Yellow Transparent in its parentage. Early to ripen in August, small, greenish/ yellow, tart/tangy lightly sweetened, brisk, good eaten off the tree at first also pies and sauce. Tip bearer, do not prune back side branches. Reportedly quite winter hardy having survived -40. Zone 4
JEFFERIS From the farm of Issac Jefferis of Chester County, Pennsylvania in the 1840’s. Its long harvest window makes this a desirable variety for home orchardsists wishing to pick a few ripe ones daily. Small to medium size, dark orangey red. The flesh is yellowish white, tender, crisp and very juicy, pear-like. The tree is productive and may have disease resistance. Mid season harvest in September. The Jefferis apple was awarded the “Premium” by the Pennsylvania Horticulture Society as the best seedling exhibited. In 1888, noted U.S. pomologist Dr. H.E. Van Deman said “If I should be asked to select the choicest early autumn apple known to me, I should say the Jefferis”.
KANDIL SINAP One of the most uniquely shaped apples, an extremely narrow elongated form, from the Crimea or Turkey area( Kandil is candle in Turkish, for the shape), known in the 1800's but very possibly much older. Creamy white/yellow skin is blushed pinkish red. Zone 5
KARMIJN de SONNAVILLE Not a heritage apple, but a prize nonetheless. Intense flavor, rich, aromatic, masses of sugar and acidity, crisp, juicy, honeyed. Has some similarity in flavor to its parent Cox, but much more robust. Why is it not grown? Because it is unattractive, therefore not commercially viable (?!). If today’s apples do not have the Red Delicious size, color, and smooth skinned appearance they do not sell.
KERRY IRISH PIPPIN Ireland, 1802. Small yellow fruit, may be striped red on sunny side. Crisp, hard, crunchy, unique fruity taste once described as boysenberry.
KING OF THE PIPPINS (REINE de REINETTE) Known in England prior to 1800. A small late apple with a wonderful complex flavor, rich, nutty, vinous. The fruit is only about 2 inches around and conical, golden yellow with reddish orange blush and red striping; creamy white flesh that is juicy and fine grained. Excellent for cider, often used in old English cider blends.
KING OF TOMPKINS COUNTY Attributed to Thomas Thacker of Warren County, New Jersey prior to 1800 of unknown parentage, and brought to Tompkins County, New York by Jacob Wycoff in 1804, who called it King, and named King of Tompkins County about 1855. A large apple, yellow background overlaid with red striping and flushing, flattish, oblate shape; yellow flesh that is somewhat sweet, rich and pleasant, juicy. An all purpose variety that stores fairly well and makes a flavorful addition to juice or cider. Triploid type will not pollinate others. Harvest in October. The tree is vigorous, spreading and productive.
KNOBBED RUSSET Perhaps the ugliest apple ever grown, looking more like a gnarly potato than an apple! From Sussex, England, 1819. An uneven, irregular and bumpy surface that has a greenish yellow background overlaid with rough gray and black russeting and distinctive welts and knobs. Many clichés come to mind, such as “don’t judge a book by its cover”, as the flesh is sweet and creamy, fine grained, rich and sugary, highly flavored. Knobbed Russet was headed for extinction when collected and preserved after WW11 in the National Fruit Trial collection in England.
LADY (Api) A small apple rich in history from the 1600’s in France. Thought to have been discovered in the Forest of Apis, Brittany, France, and was recorded in 1628, possibly the Appian apple of the Roman Empire. It was grown in the gardens of Louis XIV, and eaten by the ladies of the aristocracy as it would fit in their small delicate hands. Small, flattish with a shiny skin of creamy yellow, deep glossy crimson on the sunny side, very attractive; tender flesh that is white, crisp, juicy, effervescent. All purpose, good in cider, ripens very late, in October or later, stores well, only for areas that have a season long enough to ripen it. Often used in Christmas wreaths and decorations.
LORD LAMBOURNE A cross of James Grieve x Worcester Pearmain, from England 1907, by Laxton Bros., released in 1923, and widely grown thereafter in Britain. Colored greenish yellow with bright red flushing and darker red striping. The flavor is a combination of the acidity of the James Grieve and the strawberry-like taste of the Worcester , sweet, juicy, crisp, fine grained, pale creamy and aromatic. Mid to late season. An award winning variety, being honored with the Bunyard Cup in 1921 and the Award Merit from the Horticultural Society of England 1923.
LUBSK QUEEN Displayed at the Columbia Exposition in 1893 and received the comments “ the most remarkable combination of brilliant pink and white and pruinose color of which the eye can conceive”. Glistening white porcelain skin splashed or blushed with the brightest pink and rosy red. Flesh is snow white, firm, juicy and brisk, tart to most tastes. Also good for baking. Unlike many early apples , it does not tend to become overripe and mealy on the tree. Keeps well for an early variety, harvested in late August. Lubsk Queen was one of some 350 Russian apples brought to the U.S. by Prof. J.L. Budd of the Iowa State Agricultural College and Charles Gibb of Quebec between 1879 an 1885 in an effort to locate quality fruit for the harsh northern climates
LYMANS LARGE SUMMER
McINTOSH 1st GENERATION The most commercially important Canadian apple ever grown and one of the worlds most prominent varieties, particularly in North America. Over the years, as is the case with Delicious, the search has been on for redder or more commercially viable sports, as appearance is the main concern for todays growers and the consumer. As a result, the variety has been watered down, and does not have the exact appearance and flavor of the original. Taste the original “Hawkeye” and todays Delicious and you will find quite a difference. The 1st Generation is a direct descendant of the original tree found growing on the farm of John McIntosh, Dundela, Dundas County, Ontario. Its parents are almost surely Snow and possibly St. Lawrence. A monument commemorates the tree: “ THE ORIGINAL McINTOSH RED APPLE TREE stood about 20 rods north of this spot. It was one of a number of seedlings taken from the border of the clearings and transplanted by John McIntosh in the year 1796. Erected by Popular Subscription 1912”. (LH Bailey,1927) Ripens mid September, does not store as well as many, the best quality is from tree ripened fruit used fairly soon after harvest. Zone 4.
McMAHON (McMAHON WHITE) A very winter hardy variety from seed of Alexander, planted about 1860 by A.L. Hatch of Ithaca, Wisconsin. The tree is vigorous and productive. An excellent cooker, fair for dessert, white flesh that is coarse grained, tender, juicy and subacid. The fruit is large, uniform shape, slightly conical, skin is light yellow becoming white at maturity possibly blushed with red. Harvest October. Zone 4 , likely will succeed in Canada zone 3.
MAIDEN BLUSH A beautiful late summer variety, lemon yellow with a crimson blush, not be confused with a rare Irish apple of the same name. The American Maiden Blush was popularized by Samuel Allinson of Burlington, New Jersey, and noted in 1817 as being “popular in the Philadelphia market”. The flesh is white/slightly yellow, crisp, tender, sharply acid at first mellowing as it ripens. For eating and cooking, also one of the best for drying as it remains white and bright.
MARGIL Known as early as 1750, of French or English origin. A small apple regarded by many as one of the finest dessert varieties, its sugary flesh exudes a powerful and delicious aroma. Skin is colored orange/red with dark red striping often russeted. Early bloom, harvest September. Tree is of low vigor, somewhat weak and slender.
MOTHER A September apple resembling Spitzenburg, long conical elongated shape, medium size, yellow background with bright red mottling. Flesh is yellow, juicy, with a distinct sweet/acid, spicy flavor sometimes described as balsamic, aromatic. From Bolton in Worcester County, Massachusetts, circa 1844. Some degree of apple scab resistance.
NEWTOSH Order now for LATE FALL 2017 / SPRING 2018 on EMLA 106 roots
NON PAREIL One of the oldest apple varieties in our collection, dating back to 1600’s in England. Terrific flavor, a small variety colored greenish yellow ripening to orange and russeted. Harvest late, in Oct. zone 5
NORTHERN SPY A famous old variety known for years as one of the best pie apples of the season, also enjoyed as a dessert apple by many. The first seedlings may have been grown in Connecticut circa 1800, brought to New York and raised by Heman Chapin in East Bloomfield . Mr. Chapin is also responsible for the Melon and Early Joe varieties, and a four foot high monument was erected to honor him and his apples, at Bloomfield by the Ontario County Fruit-Growers Society in early 1900. “THE ORIGINAL NORTHERN SPY APPLE TREE stood about 14 rods south of this spot, in a seedling orchard planted by Heman Chapin about 1800. The Early Joe and Melon apples also originated in this orchard”. FRUITS OF ONTARIO 1906, reports “ In Chicago, Canadian Spys are more sought for than any other variety, but owing to tenderness of the skin, which shows the slightest bruise, it is less popular for export to Great Britain than some other varieties”. The Northern Spy is notorious for being late to begin to bear fruit, on old standard rootstocks it was not uncommon to wait 15 years for the first blossoms. The availability of dwarfing rootstocks has reduced this waiting time considerably, but it may still be behind your other varieties. The fruit is large, sound fruit stores well, harvest in October, not hardy, zone 5. Late season bloomer. Very vigorous.
NORTHWEST GREENING Alexander x Golden Russet , Wisconsin, 1872 E.W. Daniels. Large green for pies or fresh stores well and quite hardy , as hardy as Wealthy.
ONTARIO Introduced by Charles Arnold of Paris Ontario, and offspring of Northern Spy x Wagener, in 1820. Large fruit, colored yellowish with splashes of bright red and carmine; whitish yellow juicy flesh, spright, aromatic, fine grained. All purpose, good in pies as it holds its shape when cooked, good in cider. Bears young, zone 5, stores well, very productive. Moderately vigorous, somewhat spreading, harvest October.
PEEWAUKEE A cross of Northern Spy x Duchess by George P. Peffer of Peewaukee, Wisconsin in the mid 1800’s. Okay for fresh eating, excellent cooking apple and fairly hardy, survives well in zone 4. The fruit is medium to often large in size, has a thin greenish yellow skin mottled orange red and striped carmine; flesh is whitish, very juicy, coarse and firm. Late to ripen, a good keeper.
PINK BEAUTY - SEE CRABAPPLES
PINK PEARL - SEE REDFLESHED APPLES
POMME GRIS (Leathercoat or French Russet) The history of this one is unclear, but it was most likely grown in Europe as early as the 1600’s as Reinette Grise, brought to the St. Lawrence valley by migrant French and grown as Pomme Gris. Confusion also exists between this and Swayzie Russet or Swayzie Pomme Gris, which are distinct varieties. An excellent cider and dessert russet, pear-like richness, slightly tart sweetness, nutty. Tough greenish yellow skin entirely covered with a brown russet, similar appearance to Golden Russet. Grown by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello. Ripens September. Tree is upright in growth and productive.
PRINCESS LOUISE Originated at Maplehurst near Grimsby Ontario as a chance seedling of Snow. The text Fruits of Ontario 1906 states “Samples were first exhibited by Mr. L. Woolverton at a meeting of the Ontario Fruit Growers Association at Hamilton, where it was given the name Princess Louise, after Her Royal Highness, wife of the then Governor-General, His Excellency the Marquis of Lorne.” A greenish or yellow apple becoming prominently covered with lively red or pinkish blush and stripes. Flesh is pleasantly mild, crisp and juicy, good dessert apple only average for cooking. Flesh is pure white like its parent the Snow apple. Reasonably winter hardy to zone 4, harvest early September. Her full name was Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, and had the Canadian province of Alberta as well as the famous tourist attraction Lake Louise, Alberta, named for her.
RED ASTRACHAN A pioneer Russian apple to America, possibly to England in 1816 and on to America in 1835. An early ripening summer variety, long prized for distinctive flavored pies and sauce. Widely grown on pioneer farms in our area.The fruit is pale yellow splashed and striped red, although the color varies up to nearly solid red; flesh may be tinged with red when fully ripe, brisk and tart grown here although sweeter in the south where it was once widely grown and popular. Does not store, use or freeze promptly after harvest in August, do not allow to overripen or it is mealy. Very winter hardy, at least zone 4, upright and very vigorous.
RHODE ISLAND GREENING One of the oldest historic apple varieties originating in America, from Green’s End, Newport, Rhode Island about 1650. One of the most important commercial varieties in the northeast in the 1800’s, second only to Baldwin. The fruit has long been prized as a pie apple, one of the best, and enjoyed fresh by those who prefer a tart flavor. The fruit is often large, dark green to lighter green when fully ripe, may have a light blush; flesh is yellowish, crisp, tart, and stores quite well when kept cold, harvest late in October. The tree is vigorous and spreading, very productive. Its productivity was noted in a text of 1906 stating “One large tree at Maplehurst, Grimsby (Ontario), nearly one hundred years planted, yielded twenty barrels one season, and fifteen barrels another”. Hardy in zone 5.
RIBSTON PIPPIN An old English variety, often used in English cider and good for baking, also good eaten fresh if not overripe. Discovered at Ribston Hall near Knaresborough, Yorkshire, England, early 1700’s, likely from French seeds, and a parent of many fine English varieties including Cox Orange. The original tree was blown over in 1810, but was rescued, propped up and staked and survived until 1928.The fruit ripens here in late August or early September, we have found that the quality is much improved if harvested before it becomes too ripe on the tree. The color is greenish yellow flushed and striped brownish orange to red, the red becoming more pronounced as it ripens, very high vitamin C. The flesh is pale yellow and rich; tree is vigorous and upright in growth habit. Zone 4, fairly hardy.
ROXBURY RUSSET Perhaps the oldest named variety originating in America, from Roxbury, Massachsetts in the 1600’s. Typical russet , sweet, rich, greenish yellow flesh that was one of the main storage types prior to refrigeration, also widely used in the late autumn to produce hard cider as its high sugar content ferments to a lively beverage that was drunk at all meals including breakfast by young and old alike. The fermented cider was stored in barrels for winter use, also for cider vinegar. The skin is greenish tinged bronze and covered with a yellow brown russet, often with a reddish orange blush on the sunny side. Roxbury can be distinguished from Golden Russet by the following characteristics: larger and more elliptical/slightly conic in shape, the tree is more vigorous and more productive, flesh is more distinctly yellow. Zone 5, harvest October, stores well in cold. Resistant to apple scab and a good choice for those without a disease control spray program. Good for fresh eating, cooking, especially cider (higher sugar content than Golden Russet for fermentation )and storage.
RUSSET APPLES - See Ashmeads Kernel, Egremont Russet, Golden Russet, Hudson's Golden Gem, Knobby Russet, Non Pareil , Pomme Gris, Roxbury Russet, St. Edmunds Russet, Swayzie Russet,
St. EDMUNDS PIPPIN One of the earliest Russet apples of the season, ripening in early September. Also one of the most attractive Russets, its skin being smooth golden brown, unlike many rough skinned Russets. Yellow flesh, rich flavor. Does not store like the later Russets. Originated at Bury St. Edmunds, England in 1870
ST. LAWRENCE A popular Ontario variety in the 1800’s, from the Montreal area pre 1835, likely a seedling of Snow ( Fameuse ). Renowned in it’s time for pies and preserves, tart, rarely found today. Harvest early Sept. Use promptly , breaks down quickly after harvest.
SCARLET PIPPIN A chance seedling discovered in Leeds County, Ontario, near Brockville Ontario. The flesh of Scarlet Pippin is pure white, tender, crisp, subacid, and juicy. The skin is nearly entirely covered with bright scarlet streaking and splashing. Excellent dessert apple, all purpose. The tree is fairly hardy to Zone 5 and likely Zone 4, upright, vigorous, very productive inclined to overbear. Harvest October. Given the flesh characteristics and the area of its discovery it is very possible that Scarlet Pippin is a descendant of Snow.
SEEK-no-FURTHER (WESTFIELD) Known at Westfield, Connecticut in 1796, but older. The fruit is medium sized and conic in shape with a greenish yellow skin that is flushed with orange and striped carmine, sometimes with light russet patches. The flesh is yellowish white, crisp, tender and juicy, mildly astringent, with a distinctive aroma and taste. Usually a bluish bloom (powdery substance) covers the ripe fruit like Blue Pearmain. Tree is vigorous, hardy in zone 5, the fruit will hang on the tree until overripe. Good as a dessert apple and for cider, not a good cooking variety. Harvest October.
SHIAWASSEE A Snow type apple, more resistant to disease (apple scab) than Snow, with the same pure white flesh as Snow, juicy, crisp, fine grained, excellent flavor, an all purpose variety very good for dessert also for cider and baking. Yellow background color covered with stripes, splash and mottling of dark crimson . Possible parents are Snow and Michigan, known since 1850, from Shiawassee County, Michigan reportedly introduced by Beebe Truesdell of Vernon, Michigan in 1860 Tree is upright and vigorous. Harvest early October, Zone 5.
SMOKEHOUSE From the farm of William Gibbons near Millcreek, Pennsylvania in the early 1800’s, more widely known by 1840, likely a seedling of Vandevere. First grown near the smokehouse on his farm, hence the name. Large fruit, conic in shape, greenish yellow flushed and striped red and carmine with russet dotting. Yellowish white flesh that is crisp, tender, subacid. All purpose, ripens in September.
SNOW (FAMEUSE) Named for its snow white flesh, this heritage variety first grew in southern Quebec along the St. Lawrence River, from seeds brought from France in the early 1700’s or earlier. Most likely one of the parents of McIntosh. Snow ripens in early October and has a distinctive taste and texture, all purpose. Zone 5. see also Shiawassee, Princess Louise, Scarlet Pippin.
SPITZENBURG (ESOPUS) One of Thomas Jeffersons favorites, grown at Monticello. From Esopus, Ulster County, New York mid 1700’s, planted at Monticello in 1790. The fruit has a yellow flesh that is juicy, spright and richly flavored, hard, oblong shaped, colored lively brilliant red/scarlet, improves in storage when picked just prior to becoming fully tree ripe and stores well in this condition. Zone 5, harvest Oct.
STRAWBERRY PIPPIN An old English variety that is crisp, sweet, juicy, medium size, striped and flushed red. Harvest September, zone 5.
SWAAR Originated pre 1770 in the Hudson River Valley, New York, by Dutch settlers (Swaar is "heavy apple" in Dutch). Green/yellow rough skin with some russetting. Creamy white flesh is sweet and aromatic. Late ripening. Flavor improves and mellows in storage although becoming softer, becoming pear like in flavor. Hangs well, often into winter
SWAYZE RUSSET (Swayzie Pomme Gris) From New York, 1872, states one source, another states that it originated “probably with Col. Swayzie near Niagara”. All sources claim that this is one of the best winter late apples. “There is no choicer winter dessert apple for the months of December and January than the Swazie(sic) Pomme Gris, especially when kept in a cool, dark cellar, so that its crisp texture and excellent flavor may be preserved”. ( Fruits of Ontario 1906). The color is of deep golden yellow covered with cinnamon russet, flavor is rich, distinctive, white, crisp, juicy, fine grained, spright and aromatic. Never widely grown commercially due to its habit of being only moderately productive. Harvest late. In 2015 Kathy Swayze , a direct descendant of the originator of the Swayze apple , said that “ according to family lore the apple was developed in Canada at the Swayze nursery but given the limited market in Canada at the time it was taken back to the USA after the war of 1812 for marketing purposes “.
SWEET BOUGH Very sweet early season apple, large, crisp, juicy, honeyed sweetness with pale yellow/greenish skin. First noted in 1817, from USA. One of the best early apples for fresh eating. Tree is productive and has some disease resistance. Harvest late August. Tender , zone 6 ; zone 5 very sheltered sites only
TOLMAN SWEET The origins of Tolman Sweet are unknown, although some claim its parents are Sweet Greening and Old Russet from Massachusetts, known in 1822 but older. A late, greenish yellow variety of unique texture and flavor that is altered in storage. Makes a good baked apple and is excellent for hard cider, and was once popular for pickling and canning.Very winter hardy suitable for planting in Canada zone 4. Harvest early October, keeps until Christmas.
WAGENER In 1796, Abraham Wagener purchased an orchard from George Wheeler in Penn Yan, New York, which contained seedling apple trees planted earlier by Mr. Wheeler. From this plot arose the variety that was named Wagener which subsequently became a very popular apple particularly in the south. An excellent cooking type, also good for fresh eating with yellowish white flesh that is very juicy and fine grained. The fruit is medium sized to large with a thin smooth pale yellow surface overlaid with glossy pinkish red. Ripens late, in October, zone 5. Sweet/tart, spright, aromatic, bears heavily. The famed author Beach called it an apple of “superior excellence”. May have resistance to apple scab, also a good cider type.
WEALTHY One of the first of the varieties bred in America with the hope of developing an apple for the north that had desirable qualities, moreso than the native cold hardy crabapples, to go along with the Russian apples already existing in North America. Developed by Peter Gideon at Excelsior, Minnesota, in the 1860’s, from a seed source of Cherry Crab. Named for his wife, the former Wealthy Hull. In 1882 the Wealthy apple was distributed among the members of the Ontario Fruit Growers Association for trial and won itself a good reputation, particularly in the north due to its superior cold hardiness. An excellent cooking variety ripening in early September. Zone 4. The Wealthy apple is commemorated on a monument at Excelsior, Minnesota with the following note: “ The tablet was unveiled and dedicated with appropriate ceremonies on the old farmstead, where he passed (Peter Gideon) the last forty-six years of his life, at 2 o’clock on the afternoon of Saturday, June 15, 1912. The memorial consists of a block of granite, raised on a platform of solid concrete, surrounded by a chain supported by a number of black iron posts. On the sloping top of stone is a bronze tablet bearing this inscription: This Tablet commemorates Peter M. Gideon who grew the original WEALTHY APPLE TREE from seed on this, his homestead, in 1864. Erected by the Native Sons of Minnesota, June, 1912.” The area of about ½ acre was named Gideon Memorial Park. The above was taken from the classic text by L.H. Bailey, Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture , 1927.
WINTER BANANA Originated with David Flory, Cass County, Indiana, introduced in 1890, of unknown parentage. Fruit is very attractive with tender smooth thin skin, waxy, bright pale yellow with red blush, medium to large oblong fruit. Flesh is whitish tinged with yellow, juicy, somewhat crisp; flavour is sweet to very sweet with a bit of tang, aromatic. Ripens late Sept., stores fairly well. Tree is winter hardy and vigorous, may be droopy, bears young and heavily. WISMERS DESSERT From J.H. Wismer of Port Elgin, Ontario, introduced in 1897, of unknown parentage. Cream coloured, tender, crisp flesh is intense, rich, sweet-sharp, nutty. Medium sized apples shaded and striped bright red. Tree is very winter hardy, vigorous and productive.
WOLF RIVER A large to enormous apple ripening in September here, great for cooking, applesauce and butter, very winter hardy, comfortable in zone 4. The story as we know it says that William Springer of Quebec left for his new homestead in Wisconsin in 1856, and along the way acquired some apples said to be Alexander. He planted the seeds at his new home on the banks of the Wolf River near Freemont, and later arose the apple tree that would come to be known as Wolf River. The skin is greenish yellow covered with red and carmine splashing and striping, flesh is soft and tender and it does not store well.
YELLOW BELLFLOWER (BISHOPS PIPPIN) A likely parent of Red Delicious, from Burlington, New Jersey of unknown age but considered an old type by 1817. This yellow small to medium sized apple is conical, usually ribbed, with a pale yellow coloring often blushed reddish brown. Flesh is yellowish white, firm, crisp, juicy and aromatic. Stores okay, flavor mellows in storage. Tender, zone 5 only. Popular on the east coast where it is known as Bishops Pippen. Harvest late, in October. Good as an all purpose variety, excellent for cider.
YELLOW TRANSPARENT An old Russian apple arriving in America by 1870, one of the pioneer Russian varieties to America. One of the first to ripen, in early August here, known for its quality smooth creamy sauce. Yellow green, small if not thinned, does not store must be used promptly. Never a popular commercial variety due to its short shelf life and easily bruised, but great as a home orchard type for an early apple that is extremely winter hardy, even in Canada zone 3.